Nephrolithiasis is an increasingly prevalent condition, especially in high income countries, and is associated with high morbidity. Extraordinary progress in genetics made the identification of genetic forms of nephrolithiasis possible. These genetic diseases are usually rare and do not account for the most common forms of nephrolithiasis that are the result of several factors such as environment, dietary habits, and predisposing genes. This knowledge has shaped what we classify as nephrolithiasis, a condition that is now recognized as systemic. How and to what extent all these factors interact with one another and end in kidney stone formation, growth, and recurrence is not completely understood. Two new research fields have recently been trying to give some answers: nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. These fields have the aim of understanding the intricate diet/genome interface that influences gene expression regulation mainly through epigenetic mechanisms and results in specific medical conditions such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Epigenetics seems to play a crucial role and could represent the link between environmental factors, that we are constantly exposed to, and risk factors for nephrolithiasis. In this systematic review, we summarize all the available evidence of proven or hypothesized epigenetic mechanisms related to nephrolithiasis.

Unravelling the Complex Relationship between Diet and Nephrolithiasis: The Role of Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics

Pietro Manuel Ferraro;Gianmarco Lombardi;Simonetta Friso
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Giovanni Gambaro
2022-01-01

Abstract

Nephrolithiasis is an increasingly prevalent condition, especially in high income countries, and is associated with high morbidity. Extraordinary progress in genetics made the identification of genetic forms of nephrolithiasis possible. These genetic diseases are usually rare and do not account for the most common forms of nephrolithiasis that are the result of several factors such as environment, dietary habits, and predisposing genes. This knowledge has shaped what we classify as nephrolithiasis, a condition that is now recognized as systemic. How and to what extent all these factors interact with one another and end in kidney stone formation, growth, and recurrence is not completely understood. Two new research fields have recently been trying to give some answers: nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. These fields have the aim of understanding the intricate diet/genome interface that influences gene expression regulation mainly through epigenetic mechanisms and results in specific medical conditions such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Epigenetics seems to play a crucial role and could represent the link between environmental factors, that we are constantly exposed to, and risk factors for nephrolithiasis. In this systematic review, we summarize all the available evidence of proven or hypothesized epigenetic mechanisms related to nephrolithiasis.
2022
kidney stones
epigenomics
nutrigenomics
diet
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1088215
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