Species interactions in mixed plantations can influence tree growth, resources capture and soil fertility of the stands. A combined approach of tree-ring analyses and carbon stable isotope was used to check tree growth and water use efficiency of two species, Populus alba L. and Juglans regia L., intercropped with each other and with N-fixing or competitive production species. Furthermore, soil analyses were performed to understand how the different intercropping systems can influence soil characteristics, in particular soil carbon stock. Dendrochronological data showed that during the first years, the growth of principal species was favored by intercropping. This positive effect decreased in the following years in most of intercropped stands, due to light competition with the crown of companion species. Carbon isotope data showed that P. alba and J. regia had the highest intrinsic water use efficiency when growing with Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb, a shrubby species with a shallow root system that favors a non-
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