Background and Objective: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common condition in infants. Usually, it resolves spontaneously in 95% of cases within 12-14 months of age, but gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may develop in some children. Most authors do not recommend pharmacological treatment of GER, while the management of GERD is debated. The aim of this narrative review is to analyze and summarize the available literature on the clinical use of gastric antisecretory drugs in pediatric patients with GERD. Methods: References were identified through MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE search engines. Only articles in English were considered. The following keywords were used: "gastric antisecretory drugs", "H2RA", "PPI", "ranitidine", "GERD", "infant", "child". Key Content and Findings: Increasing evidence of poor efficacy and potential risks of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is emerging in neonates and infants. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), including ranitidine, have been used successfully in older children, although less effective than PPIs at relieving symptoms and healing GERD. However, in April 2020, both the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) requested manufacturers of ranitidine to remove all ranitidine products from the market due to the risk of carcinogenicity. Pediatric studies comparing effectiveness and safety of different acid-suppressing treatments for GERD are generally inconclusive. Conclusions: A proper differential diagnosis between GER and GERD is crucial to avoid the overuse of acid-suppressing medications in children. Further research should be directed towards the development of novel antisecretory drugs, with proven efficacy and good safety profile, for treating pediatric GERD, particularly in newborns and infants.

Clinical use of gastric antisecretory drugs in pediatric patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a narrative review

Cuzzolin, Laura;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and Objective: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common condition in infants. Usually, it resolves spontaneously in 95% of cases within 12-14 months of age, but gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may develop in some children. Most authors do not recommend pharmacological treatment of GER, while the management of GERD is debated. The aim of this narrative review is to analyze and summarize the available literature on the clinical use of gastric antisecretory drugs in pediatric patients with GERD. Methods: References were identified through MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE search engines. Only articles in English were considered. The following keywords were used: "gastric antisecretory drugs", "H2RA", "PPI", "ranitidine", "GERD", "infant", "child". Key Content and Findings: Increasing evidence of poor efficacy and potential risks of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is emerging in neonates and infants. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), including ranitidine, have been used successfully in older children, although less effective than PPIs at relieving symptoms and healing GERD. However, in April 2020, both the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) requested manufacturers of ranitidine to remove all ranitidine products from the market due to the risk of carcinogenicity. Pediatric studies comparing effectiveness and safety of different acid-suppressing treatments for GERD are generally inconclusive. Conclusions: A proper differential diagnosis between GER and GERD is crucial to avoid the overuse of acid-suppressing medications in children. Further research should be directed towards the development of novel antisecretory drugs, with proven efficacy and good safety profile, for treating pediatric GERD, particularly in newborns and infants.
2023
Gastric antisecretory drugs; child; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA); infant; proton pump inhibitor (PPI)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1087729
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