: Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) is an ultra-rare disease, and several gaps of knowledge on various issues remain, particularly at a regional/national level. Expert opinions collected through well-defined consensus methodologies are increasingly used to make available reliable information in the context of rare/ultra-rare diseases. With the aim to provide indications on infantile neurovisceral ASMD (also formerly known as Niemann-Pick disease type A), chronic neurovisceral ASMD (formerly known as Niemann-Pick disease type A/B) and chronic visceral ASMD (formerly known as Niemann-Pick disease type B) in Italy, we conducted a Delphi consensus of experts focused on five main areas: (i) patients and disease characteristics; (ii) unmet needs and quality of life; (iii) diagnostic issues; (iv) treatment-related aspects; and (v) patient journey. Pre-specified, objective criteria were used to outline the multidisciplinary panel, based on 19 Italian experts in ASMD in paediatric and adult patients from different Italian Regions, including both clinicians (n = 16) and ASMD patients' advocacy or payors with expertise in rare diseases (n = 3). During two Delphi rounds, a high ratio of agreement was found on several topics related to ASMD characteristics, diagnosis, management and disease burden. Our findings may provide valuable indications for management of ASMD at a public health level in Italy.
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