: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) can be considered the etiological therapy for allergic rhinitis and hymenoptera venom allergy. Its role is increasingly emerging in the context of IgE mediated food allergy, where the achievement of tolerance, or the permanent resolution of an allergy, represents the optimal goal of AIT. AIT treatment, indicated in adults and children with allergic rhinitis, has a preventative effect on the development of asthma and can also be used when asthma is associated to rhinitis; however, it is not the first choice for treatment of isolated asthma. While knowledge on immunological mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of AIT is known, an intriguing line of investigation has arisen on how the action of AIT is modulated by the use of probiotics, starting from awareness that the microbiome is altered in allergic conditions: the use of probiotics in inducing the stimulation of innate immunity via toll-like receptor activation, thus acting as adjuvants in AIT, is hereby examined. Therefore, by analyzing literature on AIT and probiotics, we intend to draw attention to how the role and use of AIT are emerging as being increasingly important for both the short- and long-term management of allergic diseases and how recourse probiotics may represent an additional therapeutic strategy to modulate the effectiveness of AIT. However, further investigations are needed to better identify which probiotics to use, the dosage, and the optimal duration to obtain correct immunomodulation, and how to best customize their use, including a "AIT + probiotics" strategy in the field of precision medicine.

The intriguing possibility of using probiotics in allergen-specific immunotherapy

Caminati, Marco;Crisafulli, Ernesto;Senna, Gianenrico;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) can be considered the etiological therapy for allergic rhinitis and hymenoptera venom allergy. Its role is increasingly emerging in the context of IgE mediated food allergy, where the achievement of tolerance, or the permanent resolution of an allergy, represents the optimal goal of AIT. AIT treatment, indicated in adults and children with allergic rhinitis, has a preventative effect on the development of asthma and can also be used when asthma is associated to rhinitis; however, it is not the first choice for treatment of isolated asthma. While knowledge on immunological mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of AIT is known, an intriguing line of investigation has arisen on how the action of AIT is modulated by the use of probiotics, starting from awareness that the microbiome is altered in allergic conditions: the use of probiotics in inducing the stimulation of innate immunity via toll-like receptor activation, thus acting as adjuvants in AIT, is hereby examined. Therefore, by analyzing literature on AIT and probiotics, we intend to draw attention to how the role and use of AIT are emerging as being increasingly important for both the short- and long-term management of allergic diseases and how recourse probiotics may represent an additional therapeutic strategy to modulate the effectiveness of AIT. However, further investigations are needed to better identify which probiotics to use, the dosage, and the optimal duration to obtain correct immunomodulation, and how to best customize their use, including a "AIT + probiotics" strategy in the field of precision medicine.
2023
Allergen immunotherapy
Microbiome
Microbiota
Probiotics
Respiratory allergies
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1087391
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