Background/objectives: Autoimmune diseases are often associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, indicating that changes in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent self-peptide or antigen presentation contribute to autoimmunity. In our study, we aimed to investigate HLA alleles in a large European cohort of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) patients. Methods: Hundred patients with AIP, diagnosed and classified according to the International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria (ICDC), were prospectively enrolled in the study. Forty-four patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 254 healthy subjects served as control groups. DNA was isolated from blood samples and two-digit HLA typing was performed with sequence-specific primer (SSP-) PCR. HLA allele association strength to AIP was calculated as odds ratio. Results: We uncovered a strong enrichment of HLA-DQB1 homozygosity in type 1 and type 2 AIP patients. Moreover, a significantly increased incidence of the HLA-DRB1∗16 and HLA-DQB1∗05 alleles and a concomitant lack of the HLA-DRB1∗13 allele was detected in AIP type 1 and type 2 patients. In contrast, the HLA-DQB1∗02 allele was underrepresented in the 'not otherwise specified' (NOS) AIP subtype. We detected no significant difference in the HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DRB5 allele frequency in our cohort. Conclusions: Although AIP type 1 and type 2 are characterized by distinct histopathological characteristics, both subtypes are associated with the same HLA alleles, indicating that the disease might rely on similar immunogenic mechanisms. However, AIP NOS represented another subclass of AIP.
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