Background: Chronic pancreatitis is a known risk factor of pancreatic cancer (PDAC). A similar association has been suggested but not demonstrated for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Objective: The aim of our study was to identify and analyse all published cases of AIP and PDAC co-occurrence, focusing on the interval between the diagnoses and the cancer site within the pancreas. Methods: Relevant studies were identified through automatic searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, and supplemented by manual checks of reference lists in all retrieved articles. Missing/unpublished data were obtained from the authors of relevant publications in the form of pre-prepared questionnaires. Results: A total of 45 cases of PDAC in AIP patients were identified, of which 12 were excluded from the analysis due to suspicions of duplicity or lack of sufficient data. Thirty-one patients (94%) had type 1 AIP. Synchronous occurrence of PDAC and AIP was reported in 11 patients (33%), metachronous in 22 patients (67%). In the metachronous group, the median period between diagnoses was 66.5 months (2-186) and a majority of cancers (86%) occurred more than two years after AIP diagnosis. In most patients (70%), the cancer originated in the part of the pancreas affected by AIP. Conclusions: In the literature, there are reports on numerous cases of PDAC in AIP patients. PDAC is more frequent in AIP type 1 patients, typically metachronous in character, and generally found in the part of the pancreas affected by AIP.
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