Background: In cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies, we examined comparative associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and risk of having or developing coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods: Participants who had health examinations between 2010 and 2019 were analyzed. Liver ultrasonography and coronary artery computed tomography were used to diagnose fatty liver and CAC. Participants were divided into a MAFLD and no-MAFLD group and then NAFLD and no-NAFLD groups. Participants were further divided into no fatty liver disease (reference), NAFLD-only, MAFLD-only, and both NAFLD and MAFLD groups. Logistic regression modeling was performed. Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine the risk of incident CAC in participants without CAC at baseline and who had at least two CAC measurements. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, 162 180 participants were included. Compared with either the no-NAFLD or no-MAFLD groups, the NAFLD and MAFLD groups were associated with a higher risk of prevalent CAC (NAFLD: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.34 [95% CI, 1.29-1.39]; MAFLD: adjusted OR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.39-1.48]). Among the 4 groups, the MAFLD-only group had the strongest association with risk of prevalent CAC (adjusted OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.52-1.69]). Conversely, the NAFLD-only group was associated with a lower risk of prevalent CAC (adjusted OR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.66-0.87]). In longitudinal analyses, 34 233 participants were included. Compared with either the no-NAFLD or no-MAFLD groups, the NAFLD and MAFLD groups were associated with a higher risk of incident CAC (NAFLD: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.43-1.99]; MAFLD: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.56-2.13]). Among these 4 groups, the MAFLD-only group had the strongest associations with risk of incident CAC (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.03,[95% CI, 1.62-2.55]). The NAFLD-only group was not independently associated with risk of incident CAC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.44-1.78]) Conclusions: Both NAFLD and MAFLD are significantly associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of CAC. These associations tended to be stronger for MAFLD.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.