Introduction: An impact of the sympathetic nervous system in the higher rate of cardiovascular events in the early morning compared to the evening has been claimed. Augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction increases cardiovascular risk by augmenting pulse pressure and cardiac afterload. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) further increases sympathetic neurovascular transduction and cardiovascular risk. Aim: We assessed whether peripheral vasoconstriction triggered by a standardized sympathetic stressor is augmented at 6am vs 9pm in adults between 50-80 years with type 2 diabetes (T2DM50-80) vs healthy ones (H50-80). Methods: Mean values of sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness (SVR), vascular conductance (VC), brachial artery blood flow, and mean arterial pressure were measured on the contralateral forearm over two 5-minute bouts of rest and handgrip-mediated sympathetic stimulation, respectively. Results: Although baseline VC values were lower (p < 0.01) in the morning vs evening in both groups, SVR values in response to sympathoexcitation were similar in H50-80 (- 0.43 ± 12.44 vs - 2.57 ± 11.63 %, p = 0.73) and T2DM50-80 (+6.64 ± 10.67 vs +5.21 ± 7.64 %, p = 0.90), but higher (p < 0.01) in T2DM50-80 vs H50-80 at both day hours. Individuals with T2DM reported positive SVR values and VC change-scores, while healthy individuals reported statistically different (p < 0.02) negative SVR values and VC change-scores. Conclusion: Peripheral vasoconstriction triggered by a standardized sympathetic stressor is similar between morning and evening, regardless of T2DM and different baseline VC values. However, peripheral vasoconstriction responsiveness is blunted in individuals with T2DM as handgrip-mediated sympathoexcitation induces vasodilation in the contralateral forearm in adults with T2DM and vasoconstriction in healthy age-matched controls, highlighting a neurovascular response altered by T2DM.

Circadian variations in sympathetic vasoconstriction in older adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Gentilin, Alessandro
;
Moghetti, Paolo;Cevese, Antonio;Schena, Federico;Tarperi, Cantor
2023-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: An impact of the sympathetic nervous system in the higher rate of cardiovascular events in the early morning compared to the evening has been claimed. Augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction increases cardiovascular risk by augmenting pulse pressure and cardiac afterload. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) further increases sympathetic neurovascular transduction and cardiovascular risk. Aim: We assessed whether peripheral vasoconstriction triggered by a standardized sympathetic stressor is augmented at 6am vs 9pm in adults between 50-80 years with type 2 diabetes (T2DM50-80) vs healthy ones (H50-80). Methods: Mean values of sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness (SVR), vascular conductance (VC), brachial artery blood flow, and mean arterial pressure were measured on the contralateral forearm over two 5-minute bouts of rest and handgrip-mediated sympathetic stimulation, respectively. Results: Although baseline VC values were lower (p < 0.01) in the morning vs evening in both groups, SVR values in response to sympathoexcitation were similar in H50-80 (- 0.43 ± 12.44 vs - 2.57 ± 11.63 %, p = 0.73) and T2DM50-80 (+6.64 ± 10.67 vs +5.21 ± 7.64 %, p = 0.90), but higher (p < 0.01) in T2DM50-80 vs H50-80 at both day hours. Individuals with T2DM reported positive SVR values and VC change-scores, while healthy individuals reported statistically different (p < 0.02) negative SVR values and VC change-scores. Conclusion: Peripheral vasoconstriction triggered by a standardized sympathetic stressor is similar between morning and evening, regardless of T2DM and different baseline VC values. However, peripheral vasoconstriction responsiveness is blunted in individuals with T2DM as handgrip-mediated sympathoexcitation induces vasodilation in the contralateral forearm in adults with T2DM and vasoconstriction in healthy age-matched controls, highlighting a neurovascular response altered by T2DM.
2023
Aging
Cardiovascular disease
Circadian changes
Diabetes mellitus
Risk factors
Sex differences
Sympathetic activation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1086128
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