Background and aims: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Cardiovascular risk is higher in women with diabetes than in men. With this study, we wanted to determine whether female children and adolescents with T1DM are more prone to cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and an atherogenic diet than boys.Methods and results: For this cross-sectional study, anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and dietary intake data of 314 children with diabetes (3-18 years; 178 boys) were analysed according to age and sex. Linear and binary logistic regression was performed to test independent associations between sex, dietary intake, and CVRFs. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG), fibre, monounsaturated fatty acid levels (all p < 0.01), and lipid (p = 0.022) intake were higher in the girls than in the boys. Multiple regression analysis showed that LDL was associated with sex, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid intake percentage (R (Kannel, 1979) [2] = 0.130; p = 0.0004) independent of age, pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, energy, and fibre intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that high LDL-c levels were present more often in girls [odds ratio, OR; confidence interval, CI = 2.569 (1.178-5.604); p = 0.018] who had a higher dietary lipid intake percentage [OR (CI) = 1.089 (1.011-1.173); p = 0.025].Conclusions: Girls with diabetes have higher LDL-c levels associated with higher dietary lipid intake. Our findings suggest that young people with diabetes, especially girls, may benefit from early dietary interventions to reduce their cardiovascular risk.(c) 2021 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A role for diet?

Maffeis, Claudio;Olivieri, Francesca;Tommasi, Mara;Fornari, Elena;Piona, Claudia;Morandi, Anita;Maguolo, Alice
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background and aims: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Cardiovascular risk is higher in women with diabetes than in men. With this study, we wanted to determine whether female children and adolescents with T1DM are more prone to cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and an atherogenic diet than boys.Methods and results: For this cross-sectional study, anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and dietary intake data of 314 children with diabetes (3-18 years; 178 boys) were analysed according to age and sex. Linear and binary logistic regression was performed to test independent associations between sex, dietary intake, and CVRFs. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG), fibre, monounsaturated fatty acid levels (all p < 0.01), and lipid (p = 0.022) intake were higher in the girls than in the boys. Multiple regression analysis showed that LDL was associated with sex, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid intake percentage (R (Kannel, 1979) [2] = 0.130; p = 0.0004) independent of age, pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, energy, and fibre intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that high LDL-c levels were present more often in girls [odds ratio, OR; confidence interval, CI = 2.569 (1.178-5.604); p = 0.018] who had a higher dietary lipid intake percentage [OR (CI) = 1.089 (1.011-1.173); p = 0.025].Conclusions: Girls with diabetes have higher LDL-c levels associated with higher dietary lipid intake. Our findings suggest that young people with diabetes, especially girls, may benefit from early dietary interventions to reduce their cardiovascular risk.(c) 2021 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2022
Cardiovascular risk
Children and adolescents
Gender
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Nutrition
Sex
Type 1 diabetes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1085531
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