Down syndrome is a common genetic disorder caused by partial or complete triplication of chromosome 21. This syndrome shows an overall and progressive impairment of olfactory function, detected early in adulthood. The olfactory neuronal cells are located in the nasal olfactory mucosa and represent the first sensory neurons of the olfactory pathway. Herein, we applied the olfactory swabbing procedure to allow a gentle collection of olfactory epithelial cells in seven individuals with Down syndrome and in ten euploid controls. The aim of this research was to investigate the peripheral gene expression pattern in olfactory epithelial cells through RNAseq analysis. Validated tests (Sniffin' Sticks Extended test) were used to assess olfactory function. Olfactory scores were correlated with RNAseq results and cognitive scores (Vineland II and Leiter scales). All Down syndrome individuals showed both olfactory deficit and intellectual disability. Down syndrome individuals and euploid controls exhibited clear expression differences in genes located in and outside the chromosome 21. In addition, a significant correlation was found between olfactory test scores and gene expression, while a non-significant correlation emerged between olfactory and cognitive scores. This first preliminary step gives new insights into the Down syndrome olfactory system research, starting from the olfactory neuroepithelium, the first cellular step on the olfactory way.

RNAseq analysis of olfactory neuroepithelium cytological samples in individuals with Down syndrome compared to euploid controls: a pilot study

Brozzetti, Lorenzo;Scambi, Ilaria;Bertoldi, Loris;Zanini, Alice;Sacchetto, Luca;Mariotti, Raffaella;Zanusso, Gianluigi;Cecchini, Maria Paola
2022-01-01

Abstract

Down syndrome is a common genetic disorder caused by partial or complete triplication of chromosome 21. This syndrome shows an overall and progressive impairment of olfactory function, detected early in adulthood. The olfactory neuronal cells are located in the nasal olfactory mucosa and represent the first sensory neurons of the olfactory pathway. Herein, we applied the olfactory swabbing procedure to allow a gentle collection of olfactory epithelial cells in seven individuals with Down syndrome and in ten euploid controls. The aim of this research was to investigate the peripheral gene expression pattern in olfactory epithelial cells through RNAseq analysis. Validated tests (Sniffin' Sticks Extended test) were used to assess olfactory function. Olfactory scores were correlated with RNAseq results and cognitive scores (Vineland II and Leiter scales). All Down syndrome individuals showed both olfactory deficit and intellectual disability. Down syndrome individuals and euploid controls exhibited clear expression differences in genes located in and outside the chromosome 21. In addition, a significant correlation was found between olfactory test scores and gene expression, while a non-significant correlation emerged between olfactory and cognitive scores. This first preliminary step gives new insights into the Down syndrome olfactory system research, starting from the olfactory neuroepithelium, the first cellular step on the olfactory way.
Differential gene expression analysis
Down syndrome
Euploid controls
Olfactory neuroepithelium swabbing
RNAseq analysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1079850
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