Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is a key regulator of homocysteine metabolism. Although eukaryotic CBS have a similar domain architecture with a catalytic core and a C-terminal Bateman module, their regulation varies widely across phyla. In human CBS (HsCBS), the C-terminus has an autoinhibitory effect by acting as a cap that avoids the entry of substrates into the catalytic site. The binding of the allosteric modulator AdoMet to this region alleviates this cap, allowing the protein to progress from a basal toward an activated state. The same activation is obtained by artificial removal or heat-denaturation of the Bateman module. Recently, we reported the crystal structure of CBS from Toxoplasma gondii (TgCBS) showing that the enzyme assembles into basket-like dimers similar to the basal conformers of HsCBS. These findings would suggest a similar lid function for the Bateman module which, as in HsCBS, should relax in the absence of the C-terminal module. However, herein we demonstrate that, in contrast with HsCBS, removal of the Bateman module in TgCBS through deletion mutagenesis, limited proteolysis, or thermal denaturation has no effects on its activity, oligomerization, and thermal stability. This opposite behavior we have now found in TgCBS provides evidence of a novel type of CBS regulation.

Insights into Domain Organization and Regulatory Mechanism of Cystathionine Beta-Synthase from Toxoplasma gondii

Conter, Carolina;Fruncillo, Silvia;Favretto, Filippo;Dominici, Paola;Astegno, Alessandra
2022-01-01

Abstract

Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is a key regulator of homocysteine metabolism. Although eukaryotic CBS have a similar domain architecture with a catalytic core and a C-terminal Bateman module, their regulation varies widely across phyla. In human CBS (HsCBS), the C-terminus has an autoinhibitory effect by acting as a cap that avoids the entry of substrates into the catalytic site. The binding of the allosteric modulator AdoMet to this region alleviates this cap, allowing the protein to progress from a basal toward an activated state. The same activation is obtained by artificial removal or heat-denaturation of the Bateman module. Recently, we reported the crystal structure of CBS from Toxoplasma gondii (TgCBS) showing that the enzyme assembles into basket-like dimers similar to the basal conformers of HsCBS. These findings would suggest a similar lid function for the Bateman module which, as in HsCBS, should relax in the absence of the C-terminal module. However, herein we demonstrate that, in contrast with HsCBS, removal of the Bateman module in TgCBS through deletion mutagenesis, limited proteolysis, or thermal denaturation has no effects on its activity, oligomerization, and thermal stability. This opposite behavior we have now found in TgCBS provides evidence of a novel type of CBS regulation.
Bateman module
Toxoplasma gondii
cystathionine beta-synthase
enzyme activation
folding
mutagenesis
oligomerization
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1078328
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