Disease resistance in plants depends on a molecular dialogue with microbes that involves many known chemical effectors, but the time course of the interaction and the influence of the environment are largely unknown. The outcome of host-pathogen interactions is thought to reflect the offensive and defensive capabilities of both players. When plants interact with Pseudomonas syringae, several well-characterized virulence factors contribute to early bacterial pathogenicity, including the type III secretion system (T3SS), which must be activated by signals from the plant and environment to allow the secretion of virulence effectors. The manner in which these signals regulate T3SS activity is still unclear. Here, we strengthen the paradigm of the plant-pathogen molecular dialogue by addressing overlooked details concerning the timing of interactions, specifically the role of plant signals and temperature on the regulation of bacterial virulence during the first few hours of the interaction. Whole-genome expression profiling after 1 h revealed that the perception of plant signals from kiwifruit or tomato extracts anticipated T3SS expression in P. syringae pv. actinidiae compared to apoplast-like conditions, facilitating more efficient effector transport in planta, as revealed by the induction of a temperature-dependent hypersensitive response in the nonhost plant Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0). Our results show that in the arms race between plants and bacteria, the temperature-dependent timing of bacterial virulence versus the induction of plant defenses is probably one of the fundamental parameters governing the outcome of the interaction. IMPORTANCE Plant diseases-their occurrence and severity-result from the impact of three factors: the host, the pathogen, and the environmental conditions, interconnected in the disease triangle. Time was further included as a fourth factor accounting for plant disease, leading to a more realistic three-dimensional disease pyramid to represent the evolution of disease over time. However, this representation still considers time only as a parameter determining when and to what extent a disease will occur, at a scale from days to months. Here, we show that time is a factor regulating the arms race between plants and pathogens, at a scale from minutes to hours, and strictly depends on environmental factors. Thus, besides the arms possessed by pathogens and plants per se, the opportunity and the timing of arms mobilization make the difference in determining the outcome of an interaction and thus the occurrence of plant disease.

Plant Signals Anticipate the Induction of the Type III Secretion System in Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Facilitating Efficient Temperature-Dependent Effector Translocation

Puttilli, Maria Rita;Danzi, Davide;Brandi, Jessica;Cecconi, Daniela;Polverari, Annalisa;Vandelle, Elodie
2022

Abstract

Disease resistance in plants depends on a molecular dialogue with microbes that involves many known chemical effectors, but the time course of the interaction and the influence of the environment are largely unknown. The outcome of host-pathogen interactions is thought to reflect the offensive and defensive capabilities of both players. When plants interact with Pseudomonas syringae, several well-characterized virulence factors contribute to early bacterial pathogenicity, including the type III secretion system (T3SS), which must be activated by signals from the plant and environment to allow the secretion of virulence effectors. The manner in which these signals regulate T3SS activity is still unclear. Here, we strengthen the paradigm of the plant-pathogen molecular dialogue by addressing overlooked details concerning the timing of interactions, specifically the role of plant signals and temperature on the regulation of bacterial virulence during the first few hours of the interaction. Whole-genome expression profiling after 1 h revealed that the perception of plant signals from kiwifruit or tomato extracts anticipated T3SS expression in P. syringae pv. actinidiae compared to apoplast-like conditions, facilitating more efficient effector transport in planta, as revealed by the induction of a temperature-dependent hypersensitive response in the nonhost plant Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0). Our results show that in the arms race between plants and bacteria, the temperature-dependent timing of bacterial virulence versus the induction of plant defenses is probably one of the fundamental parameters governing the outcome of the interaction. IMPORTANCE Plant diseases-their occurrence and severity-result from the impact of three factors: the host, the pathogen, and the environmental conditions, interconnected in the disease triangle. Time was further included as a fourth factor accounting for plant disease, leading to a more realistic three-dimensional disease pyramid to represent the evolution of disease over time. However, this representation still considers time only as a parameter determining when and to what extent a disease will occur, at a scale from days to months. Here, we show that time is a factor regulating the arms race between plants and pathogens, at a scale from minutes to hours, and strictly depends on environmental factors. Thus, besides the arms possessed by pathogens and plants per se, the opportunity and the timing of arms mobilization make the difference in determining the outcome of an interaction and thus the occurrence of plant disease.
bacterial virulence
environmental signals
plant-bacteria communication
plant-pathogen interactions
signaling
virulence regulation
virulence timing
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1077529
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