Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the major causes of chronic respiratory diseases among infants. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches have been proposed for its management. Since oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of BPD, it is reasonable to consider the potential of antioxidant strategies in the prevention and treatment of this condition. Indeed, antioxidants can prevent or inhibit substrate oxidation. Some studies have evaluated the efficacy of the exogenous administration of vitamins and micronutrients in reducing the propagation of free radicals through their scavenging capacity. Nonetheless, encouraging preclinical results did not translate into effective preventive and/or therapeutic interventions. This narrative review evaluates the current evidence about the antioxidants that are potentially useful for preventing and treating BPD and explores the most relevant issues affecting their implementation in clinical practice, as well as their associated evidence gaps and research limitations.
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