Leukocyte migration into the central nervous system (CNS) represents a central process in the development of neurological diseases with a detrimental inflammatory component. Infiltrating neutrophils have been detected inside the brain of patients with several neuroinflammatory disorders, including stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. During inflammatory responses, these highly reactive innate immune cells can rapidly extravasate and release a plethora of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic factors, potentially inducing significant collateral tissue damage. Indeed, several studies have shown that neutrophils promote blood-brain barrier damage and increased vascular permeability during neuroinflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils migrate into the meninges and choroid plexus, suggesting these cells can also damage the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In this review, we discuss the emerging role of neutrophils in the dysfunction of brain barriers across different neuroinflammatory conditions and describe the molecular basis and cellular interplays involved in neutrophil-mediated injury of the CNS borders.

The role of neutrophils in the dysfunction of central nervous system barriers

Bruno Santos-Lima;Enrica Caterina Pietronigro;Eleonora Terrabuio;Elena Zenaro
;
Gabriela Constantin
2022

Abstract

Leukocyte migration into the central nervous system (CNS) represents a central process in the development of neurological diseases with a detrimental inflammatory component. Infiltrating neutrophils have been detected inside the brain of patients with several neuroinflammatory disorders, including stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. During inflammatory responses, these highly reactive innate immune cells can rapidly extravasate and release a plethora of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic factors, potentially inducing significant collateral tissue damage. Indeed, several studies have shown that neutrophils promote blood-brain barrier damage and increased vascular permeability during neuroinflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils migrate into the meninges and choroid plexus, suggesting these cells can also damage the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In this review, we discuss the emerging role of neutrophils in the dysfunction of brain barriers across different neuroinflammatory conditions and describe the molecular basis and cellular interplays involved in neutrophil-mediated injury of the CNS borders.
blood-brain barrier
blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB)
neurodegenerative diseases
neuroinflammation
neutrophils
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1075168
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