Background Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome affecting the whole body, kidneys included. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a valid option for patients with very severe HF. Focusing on renal function, LVAD implantation could theoretically reverse the detrimental effects of HF syndrome on kidneys. However, implanting an LVAD is a high-risk surgical procedure, and LVAD patients have higher risk of bleeding, device thrombosis, strokes, renal impairment, multi-organ failure and infections. Furthermore, an LVAD has its own particular effects on the renal system. Methods In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the complex interaction between LVAD and the kidneys from the pathophysiological and clinical perspectives. An analysis of the different effects of pulsatile-flow and continuous-flow LVAD is provided. Results Despite their limitations, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) formulas help to stratify patients by their post-LVAD placement prognosis. Poor basal renal function, the onset of acute kidney injury or the need for renal replacement therapy after LVAD implantation negatively influences a patient's prognosis. LVAD can also prompt an improvement in renal function, however, with some counterintuitive effects on a patient's prognosis. Conclusion It is still hard to say whether different trends in eGFR depend on different renal conditions before LVAD placement, on a patient's better overall status or on a particular patient management strategy before and/or after the device's implantation. Steps should be taken to solve this question because finding the best candidates for LVAD implantation is of paramount importance to ensure the best outcomes.

Heart, kidney and left ventricular assist device: a complex trio

Gambaro, Alessia;Lombardi, Gianmarco;Onorati, Francesco;Gottin, Leonardo;Ribichini, Flavio Luciano
2021

Abstract

Background Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome affecting the whole body, kidneys included. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a valid option for patients with very severe HF. Focusing on renal function, LVAD implantation could theoretically reverse the detrimental effects of HF syndrome on kidneys. However, implanting an LVAD is a high-risk surgical procedure, and LVAD patients have higher risk of bleeding, device thrombosis, strokes, renal impairment, multi-organ failure and infections. Furthermore, an LVAD has its own particular effects on the renal system. Methods In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the complex interaction between LVAD and the kidneys from the pathophysiological and clinical perspectives. An analysis of the different effects of pulsatile-flow and continuous-flow LVAD is provided. Results Despite their limitations, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) formulas help to stratify patients by their post-LVAD placement prognosis. Poor basal renal function, the onset of acute kidney injury or the need for renal replacement therapy after LVAD implantation negatively influences a patient's prognosis. LVAD can also prompt an improvement in renal function, however, with some counterintuitive effects on a patient's prognosis. Conclusion It is still hard to say whether different trends in eGFR depend on different renal conditions before LVAD placement, on a patient's better overall status or on a particular patient management strategy before and/or after the device's implantation. Steps should be taken to solve this question because finding the best candidates for LVAD implantation is of paramount importance to ensure the best outcomes.
AKI
LVAD
heart failure
mechanical circulatory assist device
renal failure
Acute Kidney Injury
Cardio-Renal Syndrome
Creatinine
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Heart Failure
Humans
Prognosis
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Renal Replacement Therapy
Treatment Outcome
Heart-Assist Devices
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1074744
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