Aims: The aim of this prospective study was to examine the relationship between controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurements (LSM) with the risk of developing a composite endpoint inclusive of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cerebrovascular insult (CVI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This study included 238 T2DM outpatients without chronic liver diseases. Results: The patient population was followed for a median period of 7.6 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed that there was a higher proportion of patients who developed the aforementioned composite outcome (P < 0.001 by the log-rank test), as well as CKD (P < 0.001) or AMI alone (P = 0.014) among those with elevated CAP values (& GE;238 dB/m) at baseline. Similarly, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed that there was a higher proportion of patients who developed the composite outcome (P < 0.001), as well as CKD (P < 0.001), or AMI alone (P < 0.001) among those with elevated LSM values (& GE;7.0/6.2 kPa). In multivariable regression analyses, the presence of elevated CAP (adjusted-hazard ratio 2.34, 95% CI 1.32-4.15) and elevated LSM (adjusted-hazard ratio 2.84, 95% CI 1.92-4.21), independently of each other, were associated with a higher risk of developing the composite outcome, as well as incident AMI or CKD alone after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes-related variables. Conclusions: Our study shows that the elastographic parameters of liver steatosis and fibrosis independently predict the long-term risk of developing chronic vascular complications in T2DM patients.
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