Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occur during or after protein biosynthesis and increase the functional diversity of proteome. They comprise phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation (among many other modifications), and influence all aspects of cell biology. Mass-spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the most powerful approach for PTM analysis. Despite this, it is challenging due to low abundance and labile nature of many PTMs. Hence, enrichment of modified peptides is required for MS analysis. This review provides an overview of most common PTMs and a discussion of current enrichment methods for MS-based proteomics analysis. The traditional affinity strategies, including immunoenrichment, chromatography and protein pull-down, are outlined together with their strengths and shortcomings. Moreover, a special attention is paid to chemical enrichment strategies, such as capture by chemoselective probes, metabolic and chemoenzymatic labelling, which are discussed with an emphasis on their recent progress. Finally, the challenges and future trends in the field are discussed.
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