Nanoconstructs developed for biomedical purposes must overcome diverse biological barriers before reaching the target where playing their therapeutic or diagnostic function. In vivo models are very complex and unsuitable to distinguish the roles plaid by the multiple biological barriers on nanoparticle biodistribution and effect; in addition, they are costly, time-consuming and subject to strict ethical regulation. For these reasons, simplified in vitro models are preferred, at least for the earlier phases of the nanoconstruct development. Many in vitro models have therefore been set up. Each model has its own pros and cons: conventional 2D cell cultures are simple and cost-effective, but the information remains limited to single cells; cell monolayers allow the formation of cell-cell junctions and the assessment of nanoparticle translocation across structured barriers but they lack three-dimensionality; 3D cell culture systems are more appropriate to test in vitro nanoparticle biodistribution but they are static; finally, bioreactors and microfluidic devices can mimicking the physiological flow occurring in vivo thus providing in vitro biological barrier models suitable to reliably assess nanoparticles relocation. In this evolving context, the present review provides an overview of the most representative and performing in vitro models of biological barriers set up for nanomedical research.

In vitro models of biological barriers for nanomedical research

Malatesta M.
2022

Abstract

Nanoconstructs developed for biomedical purposes must overcome diverse biological barriers before reaching the target where playing their therapeutic or diagnostic function. In vivo models are very complex and unsuitable to distinguish the roles plaid by the multiple biological barriers on nanoparticle biodistribution and effect; in addition, they are costly, time-consuming and subject to strict ethical regulation. For these reasons, simplified in vitro models are preferred, at least for the earlier phases of the nanoconstruct development. Many in vitro models have therefore been set up. Each model has its own pros and cons: conventional 2D cell cultures are simple and cost-effective, but the information remains limited to single cells; cell monolayers allow the formation of cell-cell junctions and the assessment of nanoparticle translocation across structured barriers but they lack three-dimensionality; 3D cell culture systems are more appropriate to test in vitro nanoparticle biodistribution but they are static; finally, bioreactors and microfluidic devices can mimicking the physiological flow occurring in vivo thus providing in vitro biological barrier models suitable to reliably assess nanoparticles relocation. In this evolving context, the present review provides an overview of the most representative and performing in vitro models of biological barriers set up for nanomedical research.
bioreactor
cell culture
cell monolayer
microfluidics
nanoparticles
spheroid
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1073326
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