Objectives Neuropathological studies have shown that multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions are heterogeneous in terms of myelin/axon damage and repair as well as iron content. However, it remains a challenge to identify specific chronic lesion types, especially remyelinated lesions, in vivo in patients with MS. Methods We performed 3 studies: (1) a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort of 115 patients with MS and 76 healthy controls, who underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), myelin water fraction (MWF), and neurite density index (NDI) maps. White matter (WM) lesions in QSM were classified into 5 QSM lesion types (iso-intense, hypo-intense, hyperintense, lesions with hypo-intense rims, and lesions with paramagnetic rim legions [PRLs]); (2) a longitudinal study of 40 patients with MS to study the evolution of lesions over 2 years; (3) a postmortem histopathology-QSM validation study in 3 brains of patients with MS to assess the accuracy of QSM classification to identify neuropathological lesion types in 63 WM lesions. Results At baseline, hypo- and isointense lesions showed higher mean MWF and NDI values compared to other QSM lesion types (p < 0.0001). Further, at 2-year follow-up, hypo-/iso-intense lesions showed an increase in MWF. Postmortem analyses revealed that QSM highly accurately identifies (1) fully remyelinated areas as hypo-/iso-intense (sensitivity = 88.89% and specificity = 100%), (2) chronic inactive lesions as hyperintense (sensitivity = 71.43% and specificity = 92.00%), and (3) chronic active/smoldering lesions as PRLs (sensitivity = 92.86% and specificity = 86.36%). Interpretation These results provide the first evidence that it is possible to distinguish chronic MS lesions in a clinical setting, hereby supporting with new biomarkers to develop and assess remyelinating treatments. ANN NEUROL 2022
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