In the surgery of gliomas, recent years have witnessed unprecedented theoretical and technical development, which extensively increased indication to surgery. On one hand, it has been solidly demonstrated the impact of gross total resection on life expectancy. On the other hand, the paradigm shift from classical cortical localization of brain function towards connectomics caused by the resurgence of awake surgery and the advent of tractography has permitted safer surgeries focused on subcortical white matter tracts preservation and allowed for surgical resections within regions, such as Broca's area or the primary motor cortex, which were previously deemed inoperable. Furthermore, new asleep electrophysiological techniques have been developed whenever awake surgery is not an option, such as operating in situations of poor compliance (including paediatric patients) or pre-existing neurological deficits. One such strategy is the use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM), enabling the identification and preservation of functionally defined, but anatomically ambiguous, cortico-subcortical structures through mapping and monitoring techniques. These advances tie in with novel challenges, specifically risk prediction and the impact of neuroplasticity, the indication for tumour resection beyond visible borders, or supratotal resection, and most of all, a reappraisal of the importance of the right hemisphere from early psychosurgery to mapping and preservation of social behaviour, executive control, and decision making.Here we review current advances and future perspectives in a functional approach to glioma surgery.

Functional approaches to the surgery of brain gliomas

Giampiccolo, Davide;Nunes, Sonia;Sala, Francesco
2022

Abstract

In the surgery of gliomas, recent years have witnessed unprecedented theoretical and technical development, which extensively increased indication to surgery. On one hand, it has been solidly demonstrated the impact of gross total resection on life expectancy. On the other hand, the paradigm shift from classical cortical localization of brain function towards connectomics caused by the resurgence of awake surgery and the advent of tractography has permitted safer surgeries focused on subcortical white matter tracts preservation and allowed for surgical resections within regions, such as Broca's area or the primary motor cortex, which were previously deemed inoperable. Furthermore, new asleep electrophysiological techniques have been developed whenever awake surgery is not an option, such as operating in situations of poor compliance (including paediatric patients) or pre-existing neurological deficits. One such strategy is the use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM), enabling the identification and preservation of functionally defined, but anatomically ambiguous, cortico-subcortical structures through mapping and monitoring techniques. These advances tie in with novel challenges, specifically risk prediction and the impact of neuroplasticity, the indication for tumour resection beyond visible borders, or supratotal resection, and most of all, a reappraisal of the importance of the right hemisphere from early psychosurgery to mapping and preservation of social behaviour, executive control, and decision making.Here we review current advances and future perspectives in a functional approach to glioma surgery.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1072967
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