Although atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is strictly associated with high cardiovascular risk and mortality, it often may remain unrecognized being clinically silent and frequently masked by co-morbidities especially in elderly patients with coexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). The present observational study was conducted in elderly CKD-patients with atherosclerosis on other arterial beds. The aims were assessment of (1) ARAS prevalence; (2) best predictor(s) of ARAS, using duplex ultrasound; and (3) cardiovascular and renal outcomes at one-year follow-up. The cohort was represented by 607 consecutive in-patients. Inclusion criteria were age >= 65 years; CKD stages 2-5 not on dialysis; single or multiple atherosclerotic plaque on epiaortic vessels, abdominal aorta, aortic arch, coronary arteries, peripheral arteries that had been previously ascertained by one or more procedures. Duplex ultrasound was used to detect ARAS. Multiple regression analysis and ROS curve were performed to identify the predictors of ARAS. ARAS was found in 53 (44%) out of 120 patients who met the inclusion criteria. In univariate analysis, GFR (b = -0.021; p = 0.02); hemoglobin (b = -0.233; p = 0.02); BMI (b = 0.134; p = 0.036) and atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta and/or peripheral vessels (b = 1.025; p < 0.001) were associated with ARAS. In multivariable analysis, abdominal aorta and/or peripheral atherosclerosis was a significant (p = 0.002) predictor of ARAS. The area under the ROC curve was 0.655 (C.I. = 0.532-0.777; p = 0.019). ARAS is common in older CKD patients with extrarenal atherosclerosis, with the highest prevalence in those with aortic and peripheral atherosclerosis. ARAS may pass by unnoticed in everyday clinical practice.
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