Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily. It is expressed by animal and human skeletal muscle cells where it limits muscle growth and promotes protein breakdown. Its effects are influenced by complex mechanisms including transcriptional and epigenetic regulation and modulation by extracellular binding proteins. Due to its actions in promoting muscle atrophy and cachexia, myostatin has been investigated as a promising therapeutic target to counteract muscle mass loss in experimental models and patients affected by different muscle-wasting conditions. Moreover, growing evidence indicates that myostatin, beyond to regulate skeletal muscle growth, may have a role in many physiologic and pathologic processes, such as obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. In this chapter, we review myostatin biology, including intracellular and extracellular regulatory pathways, and the role of myostatin in modulating physiologic processes, such as muscle growth and aging. Moreover, we discuss the most relevant experimental and clinical evidence supporting the extra-muscle effects of myostatin. Finally, we consider the main strategies developed and tested to inhibit myostatin in clinical trials and discuss the limits and future perspectives of the research on myostatin.

Myostatin: Basic biology to clinical application

Battaglia, Yuri;
2022

Abstract

Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily. It is expressed by animal and human skeletal muscle cells where it limits muscle growth and promotes protein breakdown. Its effects are influenced by complex mechanisms including transcriptional and epigenetic regulation and modulation by extracellular binding proteins. Due to its actions in promoting muscle atrophy and cachexia, myostatin has been investigated as a promising therapeutic target to counteract muscle mass loss in experimental models and patients affected by different muscle-wasting conditions. Moreover, growing evidence indicates that myostatin, beyond to regulate skeletal muscle growth, may have a role in many physiologic and pathologic processes, such as obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. In this chapter, we review myostatin biology, including intracellular and extracellular regulatory pathways, and the role of myostatin in modulating physiologic processes, such as muscle growth and aging. Moreover, we discuss the most relevant experimental and clinical evidence supporting the extra-muscle effects of myostatin. Finally, we consider the main strategies developed and tested to inhibit myostatin in clinical trials and discuss the limits and future perspectives of the research on myostatin.
Activin receptors
Atherosclerosis
Cachexia
Chronic kidney disease
Follistatin
Heart failure
Insulin resistance
Myostatin
Myostatin inhibition
Sarcopenia
Animals
Biology
Cachexia
Humans
Muscle, Skeletal
Epigenesis, Genetic
Myostatin
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1070747
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