Background: Obesity has traditionally been considered a cause of increased surgical complexity and poor outcomes following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). This study aimed at evaluating the role of obesity in terms of mortality and failure to rescue (FTR), with a particular focus on nonmalignant tumors. Methods: All patients undergoing elective PD over 10 consecutive years were analyzed. Patients were stratified according to their BMI and categorized into two groups. Predictors of mortality and FTR were assessed through logistic regression. Results: Out of 1865 patients included, 151 were obese (8.1%). Overall mortality and FTR were 3.1% and 14.1%, respectively. In obese patients, mortality was 6.0% and FTR 26.5%, significantly higher compared to nonobese (p < 0.05). In the multivariable analysis, obesity, age > 70 years, and ASA-PS score were independent predictors of mortality and FTR. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (35.8% vs. 25.8%), postpancreatectomy acute pancreatitis (24.5% vs. 12.5%), and chyle leak (6.0% vs. 3.2%) were more frequent among obese patients. In the subgroup of patients with nonmalignant tumors (n = 443), obesity was the only independent predictor of FTR. Conclusion: PD performed in obese patients was associated with higher surgical morbidity and mortality. When dealing with nonmalignant tumors, deferring surgery in obese patients should be strongly considered.
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