Aims/hypothesis: We assessed the levels of blood circulating immune checkpoint molecules (ICMs) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, and determined their association with the risk of developing an additional autoimmune disorder over time. Methods: Children with new-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 143), without biological and/or clinical signs of additional autoimmune disorders, and healthy children (n = 75) were enrolled, and blood circulating levels of 14 ICMs were measured. The children with type 1 diabetes were divided into two groups on the basis of the development of an additional autoimmune disease in the 5 years after diabetes onset. Differences in soluble ICM levels between the groups were assessed, and a Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate their association with the risk of development of an additional autoimmune disease over time. To validate the data, circulating ICMs were measured in an independent cohort of 60 children with new-onset type 1 diabetes stratified into two groups. Results: We found that the levels of circulating ICMs were significantly higher in children with new-onset diabetes compared with healthy children. Further, we observed that children with type 1 diabetes who developed a second autoimmune disease over time (T1D-AAD+ children) had higher levels of soluble ICMs than children with type 1 diabetes who did not (T1D-AAD- children). Cox regression models revealed that high circulating levels of CD137/4-1BB and PD-1 molecules at diabetes diagnosis were associated with the risk of developing an additional autoimmune disease in both type 1 diabetes cohorts. Conclusions/interpretation: Our findings suggest that soluble CD137/4-1BB and PD-1 molecules may be used as prognostic biomarkers in children with type 1 diabetes, and may pave the way for novel immunological screening at diabetes onset, allowing early identification of children at higher risk of developing other autoimmune conditions over time.

High levels of blood circulating immune checkpoint molecules in children with new-onset type 1 diabetes are associated with the risk of developing an additional autoimmune disease

Marigliano, Marco;Maffeis, Claudio;Matarese, Giuseppe;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: We assessed the levels of blood circulating immune checkpoint molecules (ICMs) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, and determined their association with the risk of developing an additional autoimmune disorder over time. Methods: Children with new-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 143), without biological and/or clinical signs of additional autoimmune disorders, and healthy children (n = 75) were enrolled, and blood circulating levels of 14 ICMs were measured. The children with type 1 diabetes were divided into two groups on the basis of the development of an additional autoimmune disease in the 5 years after diabetes onset. Differences in soluble ICM levels between the groups were assessed, and a Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate their association with the risk of development of an additional autoimmune disease over time. To validate the data, circulating ICMs were measured in an independent cohort of 60 children with new-onset type 1 diabetes stratified into two groups. Results: We found that the levels of circulating ICMs were significantly higher in children with new-onset diabetes compared with healthy children. Further, we observed that children with type 1 diabetes who developed a second autoimmune disease over time (T1D-AAD+ children) had higher levels of soluble ICMs than children with type 1 diabetes who did not (T1D-AAD- children). Cox regression models revealed that high circulating levels of CD137/4-1BB and PD-1 molecules at diabetes diagnosis were associated with the risk of developing an additional autoimmune disease in both type 1 diabetes cohorts. Conclusions/interpretation: Our findings suggest that soluble CD137/4-1BB and PD-1 molecules may be used as prognostic biomarkers in children with type 1 diabetes, and may pave the way for novel immunological screening at diabetes onset, allowing early identification of children at higher risk of developing other autoimmune conditions over time.
Autoimmune diseases
Autoimmune thyroiditis
Biomarkers
Coeliac disease
Soluble immune-checkpoint molecules
Type 1 diabetes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1065705
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