Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare monogenic disease, often fatal in the first decade, causing severe intellectual disability, movement disorders and autonomic dysfunction. It is due to mutations in the gene coding for the AADC enzyme responsible for the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. Using whole exome sequencing, we have identified a novel homozygous c.989C > T (p.Pro330Leu) variant of AADC causing AADC deficiency. Pro330 is part of an essential structural and functional element: the flexible catalytic loop suggested to cover the active site as a lid and properly position the catalytic residues. Our investigations provide evidence that Pro330 concurs in the achievement of an optimal catalytic competence. Through a combination of bioinformatic approaches, dynamic light scattering measurements, limited proteolysis experiments, spectroscopic and in solution analyses, we demonstrate that the substitution of Pro330 with Leu, although not determining gross conformational changes, results in an enzymatic species that is highly affected in catalysis with a decarboxylase catalytic efficiency decreased by 674- and 194-fold for the two aromatic substrates. This defect does not lead to active site structural disassembling, nor to the inability to bind the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor. The molecular basis for the pathogenic effect of this variant is rather due to a mispositioning of the catalytically competent external aldimine intermediate, as corroborated by spectroscopic analyses and pH dependence of the kinetic parameters. Altogether, we determined the structural basis for the severity of the manifestation of AADC deficiency in this patient and discussed the rationale for a precision therapy.

The novel P330L pathogenic variant of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase maps on the catalytic flexible loop underlying its crucial role

Bisello, Giovanni;Bertoldi, Mariarita
2022-01-01

Abstract

Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare monogenic disease, often fatal in the first decade, causing severe intellectual disability, movement disorders and autonomic dysfunction. It is due to mutations in the gene coding for the AADC enzyme responsible for the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. Using whole exome sequencing, we have identified a novel homozygous c.989C > T (p.Pro330Leu) variant of AADC causing AADC deficiency. Pro330 is part of an essential structural and functional element: the flexible catalytic loop suggested to cover the active site as a lid and properly position the catalytic residues. Our investigations provide evidence that Pro330 concurs in the achievement of an optimal catalytic competence. Through a combination of bioinformatic approaches, dynamic light scattering measurements, limited proteolysis experiments, spectroscopic and in solution analyses, we demonstrate that the substitution of Pro330 with Leu, although not determining gross conformational changes, results in an enzymatic species that is highly affected in catalysis with a decarboxylase catalytic efficiency decreased by 674- and 194-fold for the two aromatic substrates. This defect does not lead to active site structural disassembling, nor to the inability to bind the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor. The molecular basis for the pathogenic effect of this variant is rather due to a mispositioning of the catalytically competent external aldimine intermediate, as corroborated by spectroscopic analyses and pH dependence of the kinetic parameters. Altogether, we determined the structural basis for the severity of the manifestation of AADC deficiency in this patient and discussed the rationale for a precision therapy.
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
Catalytic loop
Monoamine neurotransmitter disorder
Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate
Structure and function studies
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1065577
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