Mycobacterium abscessus complex, hereinafter Mab, is a taxonomic group of rapidly growing, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Despite major advances in understanding virulence, pathogenicity and mechanism of antibiotic resistance, Mab remains a significant cause of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease. Herein, we describe a disseminated, macrolide-resistant, Mab subspecies abscessus infection occurring in a severely immune-compromised 34-year-old allotransplanted female patient affected by pulmonary chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD). The infection was characterized by hematogenous spread, and besides lungs, it involved skin, and soft tissues, resulting in a highly debilitating, painful, and finally fatal disease. Our case describes the severe impact of Mab infections in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplant (alloHSCT) and related complications. It also highlights the unmet need of preventive and surveillance measures together with the urgency of developing effective vaccines and drugs against emerging NTM. The scarce literature regarding Mab infections in alloHSCT patients is also reviewed.

A Disseminated Mycobacterium Abscessus Infection in a Patient Affected by Pulmonary Graft versus Host Disease: Case Report with a Revision of Literature

Bernardelli, Andrea;Schena, Alberto;Savoldi, Alessia;Baretta, Valentina;Zamboni, Giulia;Schena, Donatella;Andreini, Angelo;Cesaro, Simone;Tecchio, Cristina
2022

Abstract

Mycobacterium abscessus complex, hereinafter Mab, is a taxonomic group of rapidly growing, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Despite major advances in understanding virulence, pathogenicity and mechanism of antibiotic resistance, Mab remains a significant cause of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease. Herein, we describe a disseminated, macrolide-resistant, Mab subspecies abscessus infection occurring in a severely immune-compromised 34-year-old allotransplanted female patient affected by pulmonary chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD). The infection was characterized by hematogenous spread, and besides lungs, it involved skin, and soft tissues, resulting in a highly debilitating, painful, and finally fatal disease. Our case describes the severe impact of Mab infections in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplant (alloHSCT) and related complications. It also highlights the unmet need of preventive and surveillance measures together with the urgency of developing effective vaccines and drugs against emerging NTM. The scarce literature regarding Mab infections in alloHSCT patients is also reviewed.
Mycobacterium abscessus complex; haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant; nontuberculous mycobacteria; pulmonary chronic graft versus host disease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1065400
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