This study describes the largest clinical experience using ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) for different Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. A retrospective study was performed at 22 hospitals in Italy (June 2016-March 2018). All adult patients treated with >= 4 days of C/T were enrolled. Successful clinical outcome was defined as complete resolution of clinical signs/symptoms related to P. aeruginosa infection and lack of microbiological evidence of infection. C/T treatment was documented in 101 patients with diverse infections, including nosocomial pneumonia (31.7%), acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection (20.8%), complicated UTI (13.9%), complicated IAI (12.9%), bone infection (8.9%) and primary bacteraemia (5.9%). Over one-half of P. aeruginosa strains were XDR (50.5%), with 78.2% of isolates resistant to at least one carbapenem. C/T was used as first-line therapy in 39 patients (38.6%). When used as second-line or later, the most common reasons for discontinuation of previous antibiotics were in vitro resistance of P. aeruginosa and clinical failure of previous therapy. Concomitant antibiotics were reported in 35.6% of patients. C/T doses were 1.5 g q8h in 70 patients (69.3%) and 3 g q8h in 31 patients (30.7%); median duration of C/T therapy was 14 days. Overall clinical success was 83.2%. Significant lower success rates were observed in patients with sepsis or receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Mild adverse events were reported in only three patients. C/T demonstrated a favourable safety and tolerability profile regardless of the infection type. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of clinical failure with C/T therapy in septic patients receiving CRRT. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
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