Background: Dysregulation of complement system is thought to be a major player in development of multi-organ damage and adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine associations between complement system activity and development of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: In this multicenter, international study, complement as well as inflammatory and thrombotic parameters were analyzed in COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization at one US and two Hungarian centers. The primary endpoint was development of severe AKI defined by KDIGO stage 2+3 criteria, while the secondary endpoint was need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Complement markers with significant associations with endpoints were then correlated with a panel of inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers and assessed for independent association with outcome measures using logistic regression. Results: A total of 131 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (median age 66 [IQR, 54-75] years; 54.2% males) were enrolled, 33 from the US, and 98 from Hungary. There was a greater prevalence of complement over-activation and consumption in those who developed severe AKI and need for RRT during hospitalization. C3a/C3 ratio was increased in groups developing severe AKI (3.29 vs. 1.71; p < 0.001) and requiring RRT (3.42 vs. 1.79; p < 0.001) in each cohort. Decrease in alternative and classical pathway activity, and consumption of C4 below reference range, as well as elevation of complement activation marker C3a above the normal was more common in patients progressing to severe AKI. In the Hungarian cohort, each standard deviation increase in C3a (SD = 210.1) was independently associated with 89.7% increased odds of developing severe AKI (95% CI, 7.6-234.5%). Complement was extensively correlated with an array of inflammatory biomarkers and a prothrombotic state. Conclusion: Consumption and dysregulation of complement system is associated with development of severe AKI in COVID-19 patients and could represent a promising therapeutic target for reducing thrombotic microangiopathy in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Complement Levels at Admission Reflecting Progression to Severe Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

Lippi, Giuseppe;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Dysregulation of complement system is thought to be a major player in development of multi-organ damage and adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine associations between complement system activity and development of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: In this multicenter, international study, complement as well as inflammatory and thrombotic parameters were analyzed in COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization at one US and two Hungarian centers. The primary endpoint was development of severe AKI defined by KDIGO stage 2+3 criteria, while the secondary endpoint was need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Complement markers with significant associations with endpoints were then correlated with a panel of inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers and assessed for independent association with outcome measures using logistic regression. Results: A total of 131 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (median age 66 [IQR, 54-75] years; 54.2% males) were enrolled, 33 from the US, and 98 from Hungary. There was a greater prevalence of complement over-activation and consumption in those who developed severe AKI and need for RRT during hospitalization. C3a/C3 ratio was increased in groups developing severe AKI (3.29 vs. 1.71; p < 0.001) and requiring RRT (3.42 vs. 1.79; p < 0.001) in each cohort. Decrease in alternative and classical pathway activity, and consumption of C4 below reference range, as well as elevation of complement activation marker C3a above the normal was more common in patients progressing to severe AKI. In the Hungarian cohort, each standard deviation increase in C3a (SD = 210.1) was independently associated with 89.7% increased odds of developing severe AKI (95% CI, 7.6-234.5%). Complement was extensively correlated with an array of inflammatory biomarkers and a prothrombotic state. Conclusion: Consumption and dysregulation of complement system is associated with development of severe AKI in COVID-19 patients and could represent a promising therapeutic target for reducing thrombotic microangiopathy in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
SARS-CoV-2; acute kidney injury; complement system; coronavirus disease 2019; renal replacement therapy (RRT).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1064874
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