By addressing the question of barbarism and solecism as divergent forms of the rules imposed by the concept of Hellenismos, the subject of real vs. ideal language is approached in terms of norm and variation, especially in the field of multilingualism. In this perspective the purity of the Greek language is being faced to contaminations and interferences with foreign languages. After mentioning the remarks on strange and foreign words in Plato and Aristotle, the study focuses on the cases of « barbarism of the foreign word » found within the corpus of the Grammatici Graeci (2nd–9th century), commented on according to the different levels of linguistic analysis. Then, the hypotheses of linguistic borrowing are presented and evaluated taking into account modern etymological dictionaries and the most recent studies on ancient Greek vocabulary.
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