Artificial intelligence, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2

Artificial intelligence at the time of COVID-19: who does the lion's share?

Elisa Danese;Giuseppe Lippi;Martina Montagnana


Artificial intelligence, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
Objectives: The development and use of artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies, especially machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), have been considerably fostered during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several models and algorithms have been developed and applied for both identifying COVID-19 cases and for assessing and predicting the risk of developing unfavourable outcomes. Our aim was to summarize how AI is being currently applied to COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a PubMed search using as query MeSH major terms "Artificial Intelligence" AND "COVID-19", searching for articles published until December 31, 2021, which explored the possible role of AI in COVID-19. The dataset origin (internal dataset or public datasets available online) and data used for training and testing the proposed ML/DL model(s) were retrieved. Results: Our analysis finally identified 292 articles in PubMed. These studies displayed large heterogeneity in terms of imaging test, laboratory parameters and clinical-demographic data included. Most models were based on imaging data, in particular CT scans or chest X-rays images. C-Reactive protein, leukocyte count, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes and platelets counts were found to be the laboratory biomarkers most frequently included in COVID-19 related AI models. Conclusions: The lion's share of AI applied to COVID-19 seems to be played by diagnostic imaging. However, AI in laboratory medicine is also gaining momentum, especially with digital tools characterized by low cost and widespread applicability.
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