Background: GNAS is a complex gene that encodes Gsα, a signaling protein that triggers a complex network of pathways. Heterozygous inactivating mutations in Gsα-coding GNAS exons cause hormonal resistance; on the contrary, activating mutations in Gsα result in constitutive cAMP stimulation. Recent research has described a clinical condition characterized by both gain and loss of Gsα function, due to a heterozygous de novo variant of the maternal GNAS allele. Patients and methods: We describe a girl with a complex combination of clinical signs and a new heterozygous GNAS variant. For the molecular analysis of GNAS gene, DNA samples of the proband and her parents were extracted from their peripheral blood samples. In silico analysis was performed to predict the possible in vivo effect of the detected novel genetic variant. The activity of Gsα protein was in vitro analyzed from samples of erythrocyte membranes, recovered from heparinized blood samples. Results: We found a new heterozygous missense c.166A > T-(p.Ile56Phe) GNAS variant in exon 2, inherited from the mother that determined a reduced activity of 50% of Gsα protein function. The analysis of her parents showed a 20-25% reduction in Gsα protein activity in the mother and a normal function in the father. Clinically our patient presented a multisystemic disorder characterized by hyponatremia compatible with a nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, subclinical hyperthyroidism, subclinical hypercortisolism, precocious thelarche and pubarche and congenital bone abnormalities. Conclusions: This is the first time that the new variant c.166A > T (p.Ile56Phe) on exon 2 of GNAS gene, originated on maternal allele, has been described as probable cause of a multisystemic disorder. Although the mutation is associated with a reduced activity of the function of Gsα protein, this unusual phenotype on the contrary suggests a mild functional gain.

A complex pheotype in a girl with a novel heterozygous missense variant (p.Ile56Phe) of the GNAS gene

Paolo, Cavarzere
;
Andrea, Gastaldi;Rossella, Gaudino;Franco, Antoniazzi
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: GNAS is a complex gene that encodes Gsα, a signaling protein that triggers a complex network of pathways. Heterozygous inactivating mutations in Gsα-coding GNAS exons cause hormonal resistance; on the contrary, activating mutations in Gsα result in constitutive cAMP stimulation. Recent research has described a clinical condition characterized by both gain and loss of Gsα function, due to a heterozygous de novo variant of the maternal GNAS allele. Patients and methods: We describe a girl with a complex combination of clinical signs and a new heterozygous GNAS variant. For the molecular analysis of GNAS gene, DNA samples of the proband and her parents were extracted from their peripheral blood samples. In silico analysis was performed to predict the possible in vivo effect of the detected novel genetic variant. The activity of Gsα protein was in vitro analyzed from samples of erythrocyte membranes, recovered from heparinized blood samples. Results: We found a new heterozygous missense c.166A > T-(p.Ile56Phe) GNAS variant in exon 2, inherited from the mother that determined a reduced activity of 50% of Gsα protein function. The analysis of her parents showed a 20-25% reduction in Gsα protein activity in the mother and a normal function in the father. Clinically our patient presented a multisystemic disorder characterized by hyponatremia compatible with a nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, subclinical hyperthyroidism, subclinical hypercortisolism, precocious thelarche and pubarche and congenital bone abnormalities. Conclusions: This is the first time that the new variant c.166A > T (p.Ile56Phe) on exon 2 of GNAS gene, originated on maternal allele, has been described as probable cause of a multisystemic disorder. Although the mutation is associated with a reduced activity of the function of Gsα protein, this unusual phenotype on the contrary suggests a mild functional gain.
Congenital bone abnormalities
GNAS gene
Hyponatremia
Precocious thelarche
Subclinical hyperthyroidism
Exons
Female
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
Heterozygote
Humans
Mutation
Chromogranins
Pseudohypoparathyroidism
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1062295
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