The term neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) describes a group of clinical-MRI syndromes characterized by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, optic neuritis, brainstem dysfunction and/or, less commonly, encephalopathy. About 80% of patients harbor antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG), expressed on astrocytes, which was found to be both a biomarker and a pathogenic cause of NMOSD. More recently, antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG), have been found to be a biomarker of a different entity, termed MOG antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), which has overlapping, but different pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment response, and prognosis when compared to AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD. Despite important refinements in the accuracy of AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG testing assays, a small proportion of patients with NMOSD still remain negative for both antibodies and are called "seronegative" NMOSD. Whilst major advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, biomarkers that could help predict the risk of relapses, disease activity, and prognosis are still lacking. In this context, a number of serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are emerging as potentially useful in clinical practice for diagnostic and treatment purposes. These include antibody titers, cytokine profiles, complement factors, and markers of neuronal (e.g., neurofilament light chain) or astroglial (e.g., glial fibrillary acidic protein) damage. The aim of this review is to summarize current evidence regarding the role of emerging diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with NMOSD and MOGAD.

Serum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein associated disease

Dinoto, Alessandro;Sechi, Elia;Ferrari, Sergio;Mariotto, Sara
;
2022

Abstract

The term neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) describes a group of clinical-MRI syndromes characterized by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, optic neuritis, brainstem dysfunction and/or, less commonly, encephalopathy. About 80% of patients harbor antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG), expressed on astrocytes, which was found to be both a biomarker and a pathogenic cause of NMOSD. More recently, antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG), have been found to be a biomarker of a different entity, termed MOG antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), which has overlapping, but different pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment response, and prognosis when compared to AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD. Despite important refinements in the accuracy of AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG testing assays, a small proportion of patients with NMOSD still remain negative for both antibodies and are called "seronegative" NMOSD. Whilst major advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, biomarkers that could help predict the risk of relapses, disease activity, and prognosis are still lacking. In this context, a number of serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are emerging as potentially useful in clinical practice for diagnostic and treatment purposes. These include antibody titers, cytokine profiles, complement factors, and markers of neuronal (e.g., neurofilament light chain) or astroglial (e.g., glial fibrillary acidic protein) damage. The aim of this review is to summarize current evidence regarding the role of emerging diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with NMOSD and MOGAD.
AQP4
MOGAD
NMOSD
biomarkers
complement
cytokines
glial fibrillary acid protein
neurofilament light chain
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1061739
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