Members of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTPs) family are associated with growth regulation and cancer development. Acting as natural counterpart of tyrosine kinases (TKs), mainly involved in crucial signaling pathways such as regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis, they represent key parts of complex physiological homeostatic mechanisms. Protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPRG) is classified as a R5 of the receptor type (RPTPs) subfamily and is broadly expressed in various isoforms in different tissues. PTPRG is considered a tumor-suppressor gene (TSG) mapped on chromosome 3p14-21, a region frequently subject to loss of heterozygosity in various tumors. However, reported mechanisms of PTPRG downregulation include missense mutations, ncRNA gene regulation and epigenetic silencing by hypermethylation of CpG sites on promoter region causing loss of function of the gene product. Inactive forms or total loss of PTPRG protein have been described in sporadic and Lynch syndrome colorectal cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian, breast, and lung cancers, gastric cancer or diseases affecting the hematopoietic compartment as Lymphoma and Leukemia. Noteworthy, in Central Nervous System (CNS) PTPRZ/PTPRG appears to be crucial in maintaining glioblastoma cell-related neuronal stemness, carving out a pathological functional role also in this tissue. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the role of PTPRG in various human cancers.
|Titolo:||The Role of the Tumor Suppressor Gene Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Gamma in Cancer|
BONI, CHRISTIAN [Writing – Original Draft Preparation]
SORIO, Claudio [Writing – Review & Editing] (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.02 Recensione in Rivista|