Simple SummaryThe chromosomal alteration t(9;22) generating the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein represents the principal feature that distinguishes some types of leukemia. An increasing number of articles have focused the attention on the relevance of protein phosphatases and their potential role in the control of BCR-ABL1-dependent or -independent signaling in different areas related to the biology of chronic myeloid leukemia. Herein, we discuss how tyrosine and serine/threonine protein phosphatases may interact with protein kinases, in order to regulate proliferative signal cascades, quiescence and self-renewals on leukemic stem cells, and drug-resistance, indicating how BCR-ABL1 can (directly or indirectly) affect these critical cells behaviors. We provide an updated review of the literature on the function of protein phosphatases and their regulation mechanism in chronic myeloid leukemia.Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by BCR-ABL1 oncogene expression. This dysregulated protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) is known as the principal driver of the disease and is targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Extensive documentation has elucidated how the transformation of malignant cells is characterized by multiple genetic/epigenetic changes leading to the loss of tumor-suppressor genes function or proto-oncogenes expression. The impairment of adequate levels of substrates phosphorylation, thus affecting the balance PTKs and protein phosphatases (PPs), represents a well-established cellular mechanism to escape from self-limiting signals. In this review, we focus our attention on the characterization of and interactions between PTKs and PPs, emphasizing their biological roles in disease expansion, the regulation of LSCs and TKI resistance. We decided to separate those PPs that have been validated in primary cell models or leukemia mouse models from those whose studies have been performed only in cell lines (and, thus, require validation), as there may be differences in the manner that the associated pathways are modified under these two conditions. This review summarizes the roles of diverse PPs, with hope that better knowledge of the interplay among phosphatases and kinases will eventually result in a better understanding of this disease and contribute to its eradication.

Current Views on the Interplay between Tyrosine Kinases and Phosphatases in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Christian Boni
Conceptualization
;
Claudio Sorio
Supervision
2021-01-01

Abstract

Simple SummaryThe chromosomal alteration t(9;22) generating the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein represents the principal feature that distinguishes some types of leukemia. An increasing number of articles have focused the attention on the relevance of protein phosphatases and their potential role in the control of BCR-ABL1-dependent or -independent signaling in different areas related to the biology of chronic myeloid leukemia. Herein, we discuss how tyrosine and serine/threonine protein phosphatases may interact with protein kinases, in order to regulate proliferative signal cascades, quiescence and self-renewals on leukemic stem cells, and drug-resistance, indicating how BCR-ABL1 can (directly or indirectly) affect these critical cells behaviors. We provide an updated review of the literature on the function of protein phosphatases and their regulation mechanism in chronic myeloid leukemia.Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by BCR-ABL1 oncogene expression. This dysregulated protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) is known as the principal driver of the disease and is targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Extensive documentation has elucidated how the transformation of malignant cells is characterized by multiple genetic/epigenetic changes leading to the loss of tumor-suppressor genes function or proto-oncogenes expression. The impairment of adequate levels of substrates phosphorylation, thus affecting the balance PTKs and protein phosphatases (PPs), represents a well-established cellular mechanism to escape from self-limiting signals. In this review, we focus our attention on the characterization of and interactions between PTKs and PPs, emphasizing their biological roles in disease expansion, the regulation of LSCs and TKI resistance. We decided to separate those PPs that have been validated in primary cell models or leukemia mouse models from those whose studies have been performed only in cell lines (and, thus, require validation), as there may be differences in the manner that the associated pathways are modified under these two conditions. This review summarizes the roles of diverse PPs, with hope that better knowledge of the interplay among phosphatases and kinases will eventually result in a better understanding of this disease and contribute to its eradication.
CML
kinases
leukemia
phosphatases
stem cell
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1061012
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