Vaccination has been a game changer in our efforts to address the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the disease might still represent a clinical crisis for several more years, in part because of the inevitable emergence of variants capable of evading the pre-existing immunity. Drugs affecting viral spread will help curtail transmission, but therapeutics are needed to treat the more severe cases requiring hospitalization. A deep analysis of the evolving immune landscape of COVID-19 suggests that understanding the molecular bases of the distinct clinical stages is paramount if we are to limit the burden of inflammation, which can lead to death in frail individuals, according to age, sex and comorbidities. Different phases can be defined using immune biomarkers and need specific therapeutic approaches, tailored to the underlying immune contexture.
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