Climate change (CC) is expected to negatively impact respiratory health due to air pollution and increased aeroallergen exposure. Children are among the most vulnerable populations due to high ventilation rates, small peripheral airways, and developing respiratory and immunological systems. To assess the current knowledge among Italian pediatric pulmonologists on the potential effects of CC on pediatric respiratory allergic diseases, a national survey was launched online from February 2020 to February 2021. The members of the Italian Pediatric Respiratory Society (SIMRI) were contacted by email and 117 questionnaires were returned (response rate 16.4%). 72.6% of respondents were females, 53.8% were academic pediatricians, 42.7% had been working >10 years. Most of the participants were aware of the potential health effects of CC and stated that they had noticed an increase in the incidence (90.6%) and severity (67.5%) of allergic respiratory diseases among their patients. About 61% and 41% of participants respectively felt that there had been an increase in the number of children sensitized to pollen and molds. When applying latent class analysis to identify the features characterizing participants with greater awareness and knowledge of CC-related health effects, two classes were identified: almost 60% of the participants were labeled as "poor knowledge" and those with greater awareness were older, had longer work experience, and were those using the Internet to gather information about CC. There is urgent need to increase pediatricians' awareness of the detrimental effects of CC on children's respiratory health and integrate them in the educational programs of healthcare professionals.
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