Background: Sociocultural level (SCL) comprises Socioeconomic Status (SES), Cultural Capital (CC), and Social Capital (SC). The relationships between all SCL dimensions have never been investigated. This study aimed to develop a structural equation model representing how age affects the relationships between educational level, occupational prestige (as a measure of SES), CC, and SC for men and women. Method: SES, dimensions of CC and SC were measured with valid scales for 654 adults (63% female) aged 19 to 74 years (M[SD] = 42.86 [13.32]), that had or used to have an occupation and the majority of whom had at least a university degree (65%). All lived in a medium-sized town in Italy. Results: Age affected the interrelated indicators of SES (educational level and occupational prestige), which in turn affected the interrelated dimensions CC and SC (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .073 [CI = .053 -.095]; SRMR = 0.031). The system of relationships was simpler in men than in women, with educational level being less relevant in affecting the other constructs. Conclusions: The hierarchical structure of SCL and effect of age and gender must be properly taken into account in studies on the effects of SCL on human behavior.
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