The development of COVID-19 vaccines was promptly regulated to ensure the best possible approach. By January 2022, 75 candidates reached preclinical evaluation in various animal models, 114 vaccines were in clinical trials on humans, and 48 were in the final testing stages. Vaccine platforms range from whole virus vaccines to nucleic acid vaccines, which are the most promising in prompt availability and safety. The USA and Europe have approved vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and Moderna (mRNa1273). So far, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca-University of Oxford, Sinopharm, Sinovac Biotech Gamaleya, Bharat Biotech, and Novavax have documented effective vaccines. Even with technological advances and a fast-paced development approach, many limitations and problems need to be overcome before a large-scale production of new vaccines can start. The Key is to ensure equal and fair distribution globally through regulatory measures. Recent studies link Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination programs and lower disease severity.

A global survey in the developmental landscape of possible vaccination strategies for COVID-19

Chirumbolo, Salvatore;
2022

Abstract

The development of COVID-19 vaccines was promptly regulated to ensure the best possible approach. By January 2022, 75 candidates reached preclinical evaluation in various animal models, 114 vaccines were in clinical trials on humans, and 48 were in the final testing stages. Vaccine platforms range from whole virus vaccines to nucleic acid vaccines, which are the most promising in prompt availability and safety. The USA and Europe have approved vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and Moderna (mRNa1273). So far, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca-University of Oxford, Sinopharm, Sinovac Biotech Gamaleya, Bharat Biotech, and Novavax have documented effective vaccines. Even with technological advances and a fast-paced development approach, many limitations and problems need to be overcome before a large-scale production of new vaccines can start. The Key is to ensure equal and fair distribution globally through regulatory measures. Recent studies link Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination programs and lower disease severity.
COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials
COVID-19 vaccines
Candidate vaccines coronaviruses
Novel coronavirus vaccines
Pandemic vaccine development
SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1058801
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