: The use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as first-line treatment in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) harboring EGFR-activating mutations has resulted in a dramatic improvement in the management of the disease. However, the long-term clinical benefit is inevitably compromised by multiple resistance mechanisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic landscape remodeling is one of the mechanisms that EGFR-mutant LUAD cells activate, thus acquiring higher plasticity, tolerating EGFR TKI-mediated cytotoxic stress, and sustaining their oncogenic phenotype. Several metabolic pathways are upregulated in EGFR TKI-resistant models modulating the levels of numerous metabolites such as lipids, carbohydrates, and metabolic enzymes which have been suggested as potential mediators of resistance to EGFR TKIs. Moreover, metabolites have been shown to carry signals and stimulate oncogenic pathways and tumor microenvironment (TME) components such as fibroblasts, facilitating resistance to EGFR TKIs in various ways. Interestingly, metabolic signatures could function as predictive biomarkers of EGFR TKI efficacy, accurately classifying patients with EGFR-mutant LUAD. In this review, we present the identified metabolic rewiring mechanisms and how these act either independently or in concert with epigenetic or TME elements to orchestrate EGFR TKI resistance. Moreover, we discuss potential nutrient dependencies that emerge, highlighting them as candidate druggable metabolic vulnerabilities with already approved drugs which, in combination with EGFR TKIs, might counteract the solid challenge of resistance, hopefully prolonging the clinical benefit.

Identification of Targetable Liabilities in the Dynamic Metabolic Profile of EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma: Thinking beyond Genomics for Overcoming EGFR TKI Resistance

Gkountakos, Anastasios;Milella, Michele;Bria, Emilio;Scarpa, Aldo;Simbolo, Michele
2022

Abstract

: The use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as first-line treatment in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) harboring EGFR-activating mutations has resulted in a dramatic improvement in the management of the disease. However, the long-term clinical benefit is inevitably compromised by multiple resistance mechanisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic landscape remodeling is one of the mechanisms that EGFR-mutant LUAD cells activate, thus acquiring higher plasticity, tolerating EGFR TKI-mediated cytotoxic stress, and sustaining their oncogenic phenotype. Several metabolic pathways are upregulated in EGFR TKI-resistant models modulating the levels of numerous metabolites such as lipids, carbohydrates, and metabolic enzymes which have been suggested as potential mediators of resistance to EGFR TKIs. Moreover, metabolites have been shown to carry signals and stimulate oncogenic pathways and tumor microenvironment (TME) components such as fibroblasts, facilitating resistance to EGFR TKIs in various ways. Interestingly, metabolic signatures could function as predictive biomarkers of EGFR TKI efficacy, accurately classifying patients with EGFR-mutant LUAD. In this review, we present the identified metabolic rewiring mechanisms and how these act either independently or in concert with epigenetic or TME elements to orchestrate EGFR TKI resistance. Moreover, we discuss potential nutrient dependencies that emerge, highlighting them as candidate druggable metabolic vulnerabilities with already approved drugs which, in combination with EGFR TKIs, might counteract the solid challenge of resistance, hopefully prolonging the clinical benefit.
epidermal growth factor receptor; lung adenocarcinoma; metabolism; resistance; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1058603
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