Benzodiazepines (BZDs) represent one of the most widely used groups of pharmaceuticals, but if used for long periods of time they are associated with dependence and an increased risk of harmful effects. High-dose (HD) BZD dependence is a specific substance use disorder associated with a poor quality of life. It is especially important to pinpoint differences in HD BZD addict subgroups in order to tailor treatment to the individual's specific needs, also considering possible comorbidities with other substance use disorders. We conducted a study to evaluate HD BZD dependence (converted doses to diazepam equivalents, mg) in an Italian sample of 1,354 participants. We also investigated if and to which extent participants co-used other substances (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis/cannabinoids, cocaine, and heroin). We then performed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify the use patterns of these substances, finding three classes: participants in Class 1 (4.3% of the sample) had the highest probability of also using cocaine and alcohol (Polysubstance BZD users); Class 2 comprised subjects with the highest probability of being former heroin, cocaine, THC, and alcohol users (Former polysubstance BZD users); Class 3 represented mono-dependence BZD users (78.5% of the sample) and was the most prevalent among women, while young men were most prevalent in Class 1. The present study underlines different characteristics in HD BZD users both concerning other addictions and sex, and also highlights the need for a stricter control of BZD use, ranging from prescriptions to sales.

Polysubstance use patterns among high dose benzodiazepine users: a latent class analysis and differences between male and female use

Zamboni, Lorenzo
;
Casari, Rebecca;Bertoldi, Anna;Lugoboni, Fabio
2022-01-01

Abstract

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) represent one of the most widely used groups of pharmaceuticals, but if used for long periods of time they are associated with dependence and an increased risk of harmful effects. High-dose (HD) BZD dependence is a specific substance use disorder associated with a poor quality of life. It is especially important to pinpoint differences in HD BZD addict subgroups in order to tailor treatment to the individual's specific needs, also considering possible comorbidities with other substance use disorders. We conducted a study to evaluate HD BZD dependence (converted doses to diazepam equivalents, mg) in an Italian sample of 1,354 participants. We also investigated if and to which extent participants co-used other substances (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis/cannabinoids, cocaine, and heroin). We then performed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify the use patterns of these substances, finding three classes: participants in Class 1 (4.3% of the sample) had the highest probability of also using cocaine and alcohol (Polysubstance BZD users); Class 2 comprised subjects with the highest probability of being former heroin, cocaine, THC, and alcohol users (Former polysubstance BZD users); Class 3 represented mono-dependence BZD users (78.5% of the sample) and was the most prevalent among women, while young men were most prevalent in Class 1. The present study underlines different characteristics in HD BZD users both concerning other addictions and sex, and also highlights the need for a stricter control of BZD use, ranging from prescriptions to sales.
addiction
anxiety
benzodiazepine
latent class analysis
polyabusers
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
fpsyt-13-811130.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: CC BY 4.0 publisher versi0n
Tipologia: Versione dell'editore
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 385.72 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
385.72 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1057905
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact