Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) carry a very dismal prognosis. Several medical and surgical attempts have been made to reduce mortality and to improve neurological outcomes in survivors. Aggressive surgical treatment of ICH through craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation did not prove to be beneficial to these patients, compared to the best medical treatment. Similarly, the conventional treatment of IVH using an EVD is often effective in controlling ICP only initially, as it is very likely for the EVD to become obstructed by blood clots, requiring frequent replacements with a consequent increase of infection rates.Minimally invasive techniques have been proposed to manage these cases. Some are based on fibrinolytic agents that are infused in the hemorrhagic site through catheters with a single burr hole. Others are possible thanks to the development of neuroendoscopy. Endoscopic removal of ICH through a mini-craniotomy or a single burr hole, and via a parafascicular white matter trajectory, proved to reduce mortality in this population, and further randomized trials are expected to show whether also a better neurological outcome can be obtained in survivors. Moreover, endoscopy offers the opportunity to access the ventricular system to aspirate blood clots in patients with IVH. In such cases, the restoration of patency of the entire CSF pathway has the potential to improve outcome and reduce complications and now it is believed to decrease shunt-dependency.

Hemorrhagic stroke: endoscopic aspiration

Feletti, Alberto
;
2022

Abstract

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) carry a very dismal prognosis. Several medical and surgical attempts have been made to reduce mortality and to improve neurological outcomes in survivors. Aggressive surgical treatment of ICH through craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation did not prove to be beneficial to these patients, compared to the best medical treatment. Similarly, the conventional treatment of IVH using an EVD is often effective in controlling ICP only initially, as it is very likely for the EVD to become obstructed by blood clots, requiring frequent replacements with a consequent increase of infection rates.Minimally invasive techniques have been proposed to manage these cases. Some are based on fibrinolytic agents that are infused in the hemorrhagic site through catheters with a single burr hole. Others are possible thanks to the development of neuroendoscopy. Endoscopic removal of ICH through a mini-craniotomy or a single burr hole, and via a parafascicular white matter trajectory, proved to reduce mortality in this population, and further randomized trials are expected to show whether also a better neurological outcome can be obtained in survivors. Moreover, endoscopy offers the opportunity to access the ventricular system to aspirate blood clots in patients with IVH. In such cases, the restoration of patency of the entire CSF pathway has the potential to improve outcome and reduce complications and now it is believed to decrease shunt-dependency.
EVD
Endoscopy
Fibrinolysis
Flexible
Functional outcome
Hydrocephalus
ICH
IVH
Rigid
Shunt-dependency
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1057159
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