Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest tumors owing to its robust desmoplasia, low immunogenicity, and recruitment of cancer-conditioned, immunoregulatory myeloid cells. These features strongly limit the success of immunotherapy as a single agent, thereby suggesting the need for the development of a multitargeted approach. The goal is to foster T lymphocyte infiltration within the tumor landscape and neutralize cancer-triggered immune suppression, to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of immune-based treatments, such as anticancer adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Methods: We examined the contribution of immunosuppressive myeloid cells expressing arginase 1 and nitric oxide synthase 2 in building up a reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-dependent chemical barrier and shaping the PDAC immune landscape. We examined the impact of pharmacological RNS interference on overcoming the recruitment and immunosuppressive activity of tumor-expanded myeloid cells, which render pancreatic cancers resistant to immunotherapy. Results: PDAC progression is marked by a stepwise infiltration of myeloid cells, which enforces a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment through the uncontrolled metabolism of L-arginine by arginase 1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, resulting in the production of large amounts of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The extensive accumulation of myeloid suppressing cells and nitrated tyrosines (nitrotyrosine, N-Ty) establishes an RNS-dependent chemical barrier that impairs tumor infiltration by T lymphocytes and restricts the efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy. A pharmacological treatment with AT38 ([3-(aminocarbonyl)furoxan-4-yl]methyl salicylate) reprograms the tumor microenvironment from protumoral to antitumoral, which supports T lymphocyte entrance within the tumor core and aids the efficacy of ACT with telomerase-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Conclusions: Tumor microenvironment reprogramming by ablating aberrant RNS production bypasses the current limits of immunotherapy in PDAC by overcoming immune resistance.
|Titolo:||Interrupting the nitrosative stress fuels tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in pancreatic cancer|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|