Nutrition therapy is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes (T1D) management. Glycemic control is affected by diet composition, which can contribute to the development of diabetes complications. However, the specific role of macronutrients is still debated, particularly fat intake. This review aims at assessing the relationship between fat intake and glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, and microbiota, in children and adolescents with T1D. High fat meals are followed by delayed and prolonged hyperglycemia and higher glycated hemoglobin A1c levels have been frequently reported in individuals with T1D consuming high amounts of fat. High fat intake has also been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which is higher in people with diabetes than in healthy subjects. Finally, high fat meals lead to postprandial pro-inflammatory responses through different mechanisms, including gut microbiota modifications. Different fatty acids were proposed to have a specific role in metabolic regulation, however, further investigation is still necessary. In conclusion, available evidence suggests that a high fat intake should be avoided by children and adolescents with T1D, who should be encouraged to adhere to a healthy and balanced diet, as suggested by ISPAD and ADA recommendations. This nutritional choice might be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk and inflammation.

Impact of Fat Intake on Blood Glucose Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Chiara Garonzi;Claudio Maffeis
2021

Abstract

Nutrition therapy is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes (T1D) management. Glycemic control is affected by diet composition, which can contribute to the development of diabetes complications. However, the specific role of macronutrients is still debated, particularly fat intake. This review aims at assessing the relationship between fat intake and glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, and microbiota, in children and adolescents with T1D. High fat meals are followed by delayed and prolonged hyperglycemia and higher glycated hemoglobin A1c levels have been frequently reported in individuals with T1D consuming high amounts of fat. High fat intake has also been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which is higher in people with diabetes than in healthy subjects. Finally, high fat meals lead to postprandial pro-inflammatory responses through different mechanisms, including gut microbiota modifications. Different fatty acids were proposed to have a specific role in metabolic regulation, however, further investigation is still necessary. In conclusion, available evidence suggests that a high fat intake should be avoided by children and adolescents with T1D, who should be encouraged to adhere to a healthy and balanced diet, as suggested by ISPAD and ADA recommendations. This nutritional choice might be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk and inflammation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1055451
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