Urogenital aging is a common process affecting all women in the post-menopausal period of their life, and it is substantially due to oestrogen deprivation after ovarian function cessation. These changes can lead to a progressive, chronic, and complex association of symptoms identified as the genitourinary syndrome of menopause, which has a significant impact on quality of life. Genitourinary syndrome and urogenital aging do not resolve spontaneously and usually recur when treatment is stopped. Therefore, appropriate long-term management is of paramount importance, and local oestrogen is the most effective treatment to reverse urogenital aging and to improve symptoms of genitourinary syndrome as replacement therapy. In some women, topical oestrogen may be inconvenient, it may not achieve complete response, or it may be contra-indicated. Several non-hormonal therapies have been investigated, but few treatments have been reported as potentially able to reverse the urogenital aging process similarly to exogenous oestrogens. Laser seems the most promising, although further studies to define its safety and efficacy are mandatory. Vitamin D and E, and phytotherapy have returned conflicting results and require further confirmation. Lifestyle modifications, physiotherapy, and electrical stimulation represent inexpensive and applicable treatments that might slow urogenital aging. Among the hormonal nonoestrogenic therapies, the use of vaginal oxytocin and dehydroepiandrosterone have been found to be effective compared to placebo, as well as the use of oral ospemifene, which partially relieves vulvovaginal atrophy.

Non-oestrogenic modalities to reverse urogenital aging

Garzon, Simone;
2021

Abstract

Urogenital aging is a common process affecting all women in the post-menopausal period of their life, and it is substantially due to oestrogen deprivation after ovarian function cessation. These changes can lead to a progressive, chronic, and complex association of symptoms identified as the genitourinary syndrome of menopause, which has a significant impact on quality of life. Genitourinary syndrome and urogenital aging do not resolve spontaneously and usually recur when treatment is stopped. Therefore, appropriate long-term management is of paramount importance, and local oestrogen is the most effective treatment to reverse urogenital aging and to improve symptoms of genitourinary syndrome as replacement therapy. In some women, topical oestrogen may be inconvenient, it may not achieve complete response, or it may be contra-indicated. Several non-hormonal therapies have been investigated, but few treatments have been reported as potentially able to reverse the urogenital aging process similarly to exogenous oestrogens. Laser seems the most promising, although further studies to define its safety and efficacy are mandatory. Vitamin D and E, and phytotherapy have returned conflicting results and require further confirmation. Lifestyle modifications, physiotherapy, and electrical stimulation represent inexpensive and applicable treatments that might slow urogenital aging. Among the hormonal nonoestrogenic therapies, the use of vaginal oxytocin and dehydroepiandrosterone have been found to be effective compared to placebo, as well as the use of oral ospemifene, which partially relieves vulvovaginal atrophy.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1054619
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact