Giant cell glioblastoma (GC-GBM) is a rare variant of IDH-wt GBM histologically characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells and molecularly considered a hybrid between IDH-wt and IDH-mutant GBM. The lack of an objective definition, specifying the percentage of giant cells required for this diagnosis, may account for the absence of a definite molecular profile of this variant. This study aimed to clarify the molecular landscape of GC-GBM, exploring the mutations and copy number variations of 458 cancer-related genes, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 39 GBMs dichotomized into having 30-49% (15 cases) or ≥ 50% (24 cases) GCs. The type and prevalence of the genetic alterations in this series was not associated with the GCs content (< 50% or ≥ 50%). Most cases (82% and 51.2%) had impairment in TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, but a high proportion also featured TERT promoter mutations (61.5%) and RB1 (25.6%) or NF1 (25.6%) alterations. EGFR amplification was detected in 18% cases in association with a shorter overall survival (P = 0.004). Sixteen (41%) cases had a TMB > 10 mut/Mb, including two (5%) that harbored MSI and one with a POLE mutation. The frequency of RB1 and NF1 alterations and TMB counts were significantly higher compared to 567 IDH wild type (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0003; P < 0.0001) and 26 IDH-mutant (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0227; P < 0.0001) GBMs in the TCGA PanCancer Atlas cohort. These findings demonstrate that the molecular landscape of GBMs with at least 30% giant cells is dominated by the impairment of TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, and additionally characterized by frequent RB1 alterations and hypermutation and by EGFR amplification in more aggressive cases. The high frequency of hypermutated cases suggests that GC-GBMs might be candidates for immune check-point inhibitors clinical trials.

IDH-wild type glioblastomas featuring at least 30% giant cells are characterized by frequent RB1 and NF1 alterations and hypermutation

Barresi, Valeria
;
Simbolo, Michele;Mafficini, Andrea;Calicchia, Martina;Piredda, Maria Liliana;Ciaparrone, Chiara;Bonizzato, Giada;Ammendola, Serena;Sala, Francesco;Lawlor, Rita Teresa;Ghimenton, Claudio;Scarpa, Aldo
2021

Abstract

Giant cell glioblastoma (GC-GBM) is a rare variant of IDH-wt GBM histologically characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells and molecularly considered a hybrid between IDH-wt and IDH-mutant GBM. The lack of an objective definition, specifying the percentage of giant cells required for this diagnosis, may account for the absence of a definite molecular profile of this variant. This study aimed to clarify the molecular landscape of GC-GBM, exploring the mutations and copy number variations of 458 cancer-related genes, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 39 GBMs dichotomized into having 30-49% (15 cases) or ≥ 50% (24 cases) GCs. The type and prevalence of the genetic alterations in this series was not associated with the GCs content (< 50% or ≥ 50%). Most cases (82% and 51.2%) had impairment in TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, but a high proportion also featured TERT promoter mutations (61.5%) and RB1 (25.6%) or NF1 (25.6%) alterations. EGFR amplification was detected in 18% cases in association with a shorter overall survival (P = 0.004). Sixteen (41%) cases had a TMB > 10 mut/Mb, including two (5%) that harbored MSI and one with a POLE mutation. The frequency of RB1 and NF1 alterations and TMB counts were significantly higher compared to 567 IDH wild type (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0003; P < 0.0001) and 26 IDH-mutant (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0227; P < 0.0001) GBMs in the TCGA PanCancer Atlas cohort. These findings demonstrate that the molecular landscape of GBMs with at least 30% giant cells is dominated by the impairment of TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, and additionally characterized by frequent RB1 alterations and hypermutation and by EGFR amplification in more aggressive cases. The high frequency of hypermutated cases suggests that GC-GBMs might be candidates for immune check-point inhibitors clinical trials.
Giant cell
Glioblastoma
Mismatch repair
RB1
Tumor mutational burden
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1054385
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