The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between macronutrient intake and time in range (TIR) of 70-180 mg/dL in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A multi-center study recruited patients with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) between January 2019 and January 2020 from centers across Italy. Diet intake was recorded using three-day weighed food diaries. Nutrients were evaluated as percentages of total intake. TIR was considered at target if the percentage of readings was higher than 70%. Clinical and nutritional factors associated with TIR at target were analyzed using multiple correspondence analysis and multiple logistic regression. Data from 197 participants (53% male, median age 11.6 years, median HbA1c 55.2 mmol/mol, median TIR 60%) were analyzed. Macronutrient intake was 45.9% carbohydrates, 16.9% protein, 37.3% fat, and 13.1 g/day fiber (median values). TIR > 70% was observed in 28% of participants; their diet contained more protein (17.6%, p = 0.015) and fiber (14.4 g/day, p = 0.031) than those not at target. The probability of having a TIR > 70% was significantly higher with 40-44% consumption of carbohydrates compared with 45-50% consumption of carbohydrates and with the use of a carbohydrate counting system. Based on these results, a five percent reduction in the percentage of carbohydrate intake can help children and adolescents with T1D achieve the goal of a TIR > 70%. Both a lower and higher percentage of carbohydrate intake appears to reduce the probability of reaching the target TIR > 70%. These results require validation in other populations before being used in clinical practice.

Rethinking Carbohydrate Intake and Time in Range in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Marco Marigliano;Claudio Maffeis;
2021

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between macronutrient intake and time in range (TIR) of 70-180 mg/dL in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A multi-center study recruited patients with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) between January 2019 and January 2020 from centers across Italy. Diet intake was recorded using three-day weighed food diaries. Nutrients were evaluated as percentages of total intake. TIR was considered at target if the percentage of readings was higher than 70%. Clinical and nutritional factors associated with TIR at target were analyzed using multiple correspondence analysis and multiple logistic regression. Data from 197 participants (53% male, median age 11.6 years, median HbA1c 55.2 mmol/mol, median TIR 60%) were analyzed. Macronutrient intake was 45.9% carbohydrates, 16.9% protein, 37.3% fat, and 13.1 g/day fiber (median values). TIR > 70% was observed in 28% of participants; their diet contained more protein (17.6%, p = 0.015) and fiber (14.4 g/day, p = 0.031) than those not at target. The probability of having a TIR > 70% was significantly higher with 40-44% consumption of carbohydrates compared with 45-50% consumption of carbohydrates and with the use of a carbohydrate counting system. Based on these results, a five percent reduction in the percentage of carbohydrate intake can help children and adolescents with T1D achieve the goal of a TIR > 70%. Both a lower and higher percentage of carbohydrate intake appears to reduce the probability of reaching the target TIR > 70%. These results require validation in other populations before being used in clinical practice.
children and adolescents
continuous glucose monitoring
macronutrients
multi-center observational study
time in range
type 1 diabetes
Adolescent
Blood Glucose
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Diet
Diet Records
Dietary Carbohydrates
Dietary Fiber
Dietary Proteins
Eating
Female
Glycated Hemoglobin A
Glycemic Control
Humans
Italy
Logistic Models
Male
Postprandial Period
Time Factors
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1053952
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