This study focused on Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that were resistant or had low susceptibility to a combination of ceftazidime/avibactam. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying this resistance. A total of 24 multi-drug resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae were included in the study. The phenotypic determination of carbapenemase presence was based on the CARBA NP test. NG-Test CARBA 5 was also performed, and it showed KPC production in 22 out 24 strains. The molecular characterisation of blaKPC carbapenemase gene, ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV) and porin genes ompK35/36 was performed using the PCR. Finally, ILLUMINA sequencing was performed to determine the presence of genetic mutations.Various types of mutations in the KPC sequence, leading to ceftazidime/avibactam resistance, were detected in the analysed resistant strains. We observed that KPC-31 harboured the D179Y mutation, the deletion of the amino acids 167-168, and the mutation of T243M associated with ceftazidime/avibactam resistance. The isolates that did not present carbapenemase alterations were found to have other mechanisms such as mutations in the porins. The mutations both on the KPC-3 enzyme and in the porins confirmed, that diverse mechanisms confer resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam in K. pneumoniae.
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