Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence worldwide, with a rapidly increasing incidence even in youth. Nutrition, dietary macronutrient composition, and in particular dietary carbohydrates play a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the current evidence on the role of dietary carbohydrates in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The digestibility or availability of carbohydrates and their glycemic index (and glycemic load) markedly influence the glycemic response. High consumption of dietary fiber is beneficial for management of type 2 diabetes, whereas high consumption of both glycemic starch and sugars may have a harmful effect on glucose metabolism, thereby increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the presence of genetic predisposition or making its glycemic control more difficult to achieve in people with established T2D. Therefore, the same dietary macronutrient may have harmful or beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mainly depending on the subtypes consumed. Some other factors are involved in glucose metabolism, such as meal composition, gut microbiota and genetics. For this reason, the glycemic response after carbohydrate consumption is not easy to predict in the single individual. Nutrition suggested to subjects with known type 2 diabetes should be always person-centered, considering the individual features of each subject.

Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Carbohydrate Intake of Adolescents and Young Adults: What Is the Impact of Different Choices?

Bonsembiante, Luisa;Targher, Giovanni
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Maffeis, Claudio
2021-01-01

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence worldwide, with a rapidly increasing incidence even in youth. Nutrition, dietary macronutrient composition, and in particular dietary carbohydrates play a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the current evidence on the role of dietary carbohydrates in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The digestibility or availability of carbohydrates and their glycemic index (and glycemic load) markedly influence the glycemic response. High consumption of dietary fiber is beneficial for management of type 2 diabetes, whereas high consumption of both glycemic starch and sugars may have a harmful effect on glucose metabolism, thereby increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the presence of genetic predisposition or making its glycemic control more difficult to achieve in people with established T2D. Therefore, the same dietary macronutrient may have harmful or beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mainly depending on the subtypes consumed. Some other factors are involved in glucose metabolism, such as meal composition, gut microbiota and genetics. For this reason, the glycemic response after carbohydrate consumption is not easy to predict in the single individual. Nutrition suggested to subjects with known type 2 diabetes should be always person-centered, considering the individual features of each subject.
adolescents
carbohydrates
glycemic index
nutrition
type 2 diabetes mellitus
review
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1051215
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