Objective: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a key tool for non-invasive recording of brain activity and the diagnosis of epilepsy. EEG monitoring is also widely employed in rodent models to track epilepsy development and evaluate experimental therapies and interventions. Whereas automated seizure detection algorithms have been developed for clinical EEG, preclinical versions face challenges of inter-model differences and lack of EEG standardization, leaving researchers relying on time-consuming visual annotation of signals. Approach: In this study, a machine learning-based seizure detection approach, "Epi-AI", which can semi-automate EEG analysis in multiple mouse models of epilepsy was developed. Twenty-six mice with a total EEG recording duration of 6,451 hours were used to develop and test the Epi-AI approach. EEG recordings were obtained from two mouse models of kainic acid-induced epilepsy (Model I and III), a genetic model of Dravet syndrome (Model II) and a pilocarpine mouse model of epilepsy (Model IV). The Epi-AI algorithm was compared against two threshold-based approaches for seizure detection, a local Teager-Kaiser energy operator (TKEO) approach and a global Teager-Kaiser energy operator-discrete wavelet transform (TKEO-DWT) combination approach. Main results: Epi-AI demonstrated a superior sensitivity, 91.4% - 98.8%, and specificity, 93.1% - 98.8%, in Model I - III, to both of the threshold-based approaches which performed well on individual mouse models but did not generalise well across models. The performance of the TKEO approach in Model I - III ranged from 66.9% - 91.3% sensitivity and 60.8% - 97.5% specificity to detect spontaneous seizures when compared with expert annotations. The sensitivity and specificity of the TKEO-DWT approach were marginally better than the TKEO approach in Model I-III at 73.2% - 80.1% and 75.8% - 98.1%, respectively. When tested on EEG from Model IV which was not used in developing the Epi-AI approach, Epi-AI was able to identify seizures with 76.3% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity. Significance: Epi-AI has the potential to provide fast, objective and reproducible semi-automated analysis of multiple types of seizure in long-duration EEG recordings in rodents.
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